Biology test 4

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Biology test 4
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  1. Innate immunity and acquired immunity are both _____.
    A) dependent on surface secretions from sebaceous and sweat glands, which give the skin an acidic pH that is unfavorable for bacterial colonization
    B) characteristics of all vertebrate animals
    C) dependent on tears, saliva, and mucous secretions that contain lysozyme, an enzyme that digests bacterial cell walls
    D) based on the trapping of microbes by mucus
    E) dependent exclusively on cell-mediated responses
    B) characteristics of all vertebrate animals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Where in the body would you most likely to find secretory cells shaped like dice? (chapter 40)
    A) lining blood vessels
    B) lining the respiratory tract
    C) lining the intestines
    D) Covering the surface of the skin
    E) lining glandular tissue of the thyroid and salivary glands
    E) lining glandular tissue of the thyroid and salivary glands

     (These glands, as well as the tubules of the kidney are lined with cuboidal epithelium)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What conditions are responsible for the stimulation of the JGA (juxtaglomerular apparatus)? (chapter 44)
    A) a decrease in the solute concentration of the blood plasma
    B) an increase in the solute concentration of the blood plasma
    C) a decrease in the blood pressure or blood volume in the afferent areriole
    D) consumption of alcohol
    E) an increase in blood pressure or blood volume within the heart
    • C) a decrease in the blood pressure or blood volume in the afferent arteriole
    • (JGA activation results in the release of renin, which converts angiotensinogen to its active form. Angiotensin II then increases blood pressure by vasoconstriction and increased sodium reabsorption.)
  4. In most animals, food is digested by _____, _____ are absorbed by body cells, and most energy-containing molecules are used to generate ____. (chapter 40)
    A) acids... nutrients... ATP
    B) mitochindria... carbon dioxide... DNA
    C) blood cells... nutrients... DNA
    D) enzymatic hydrolysis... nutrients... ATP
    E) enzymatic hydrolysis... DNA and RNA... more cells
    D) enzymatic hydrolysis... nutrients... ATP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following is a description of a behavior that helps warm the body ?
    A) an elephant rolls in the mud and sprays water over its back
    B) a man gets "goose bumps" after walking outside in the winter without a jacket
    C) a falcon migrates from San Francisco to Brazil for the winter
    D) Sweat oozes from the hide of a thirsty antelope in the drought-stricken Serengeti plains
    E) a woman puts on a wide-brimmed hate while laboring in the sunshine 
    C) a falcon migrates from San Francisco to Brazil for the winter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. When a jogger starts to run, the rate at which his muscles produce CO2 rises sharply. But the CO2 in his blood rises only slightly before he starts to breathe faster and his heart starts beating stronger. Soon his increased rate of CO2 production is balanced by an increased rate of CO2 removal. This would be an example of _____ feedback because the jogger's circulatory and respiratory systems are _____. 
    A) positive.. improving the operating conditions in the jogger's body
    B) positive... decreasing the CO2 concentration
    C) negative... acting in opposition to one another
    D) negative.. acting to oppose the increase of CO2 from the set point or normal range
    E) positive... restoring the CO2 concentration to the set point
    • D) negative.. acting to oppose the increase of CO2 from the set point or normal range
    • (In negative feedback, a change in the variable being monitored triggers the control mechanism to decrease the deviation from the set point or normal range)
  7. A neuron consists of many components. Name three
    A) cell body, dendrites, and axon
    B) sarcomeres, axon, and dendrites
    C) collagen, actin, and intercalated disks
    D) None of the listed responses is correct
    E) cell body, collagen, and myosin
    A) cell body, dendrites, and axon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which of the following animals would you expect to consume food at the highest rate (kilograms of food per kilogram of body weight per day)?
    A0 shrew 
    B) dog
    C) elephants
    D) human 
    E)sheep
    • A) shrew 
    • (Metabolic rates are highest for small organisms and during intense physical activity.)
  9. Ligaments are a type of ______
    A) loose connective tissue
    B) cartilage
    C) adipose tissue
    D) fibrous connective tissue
    E) bone
    • D) fibrous connective tissue
    • (Both ligaments and tendons are fibrous connective tissue made of densely packed, nonelastic collagen fibers; they are strong and flexible.)
  10. It is a cold day in the lecture hall. When you rest your arm on the cool laminated desktop at your seat, heat is transferred _____.
    A) from the desk to your body by conduction
    B) from your body to the desk by conduction 
    C) from the desk to your body by radiation
    D) from your body to the desk by radiation 
    E) from the air to your body by convection
    • B) from your body to the desk by conduction 
    • (Conduction is the direct transfer of heat between molecules of the environment and those of the bod surface. Heat is always conducted from a body of higher temp. to one of lower temp.)
  11. The ____ system and the _____ system work together to coordinate and control physiological processes in most animals.
    A) nervous... endocrine
    B) circulatory.. digestive
    C) circulatory... respiratory
    D) nervous... circulatory
    E) endocrine... immune
    A) nervous... endocrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Bone-forming cells are called ______.
    A) osteoblasts
    B) neurons
    C)fibroblasts
    D) erythrocytes
    E) chondrocytes
    A) osteoblasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Cells that secrete the proteins that make cartilage strong yet flexible are called____.
    A) adipocytes
    B) leukocytes
    C) fibroblasts
    D) chondrocytes
    E) osteons
    • D) chondrocytes
    • (Chondroitin sulfate and collagen are secreted by chondrocytes, calls confined to scattered spaces in the matrix called lacunae.)
  14. The term endotherm refers specifically to ____.
    A) an animal that temporarily abandons warm-bloodedness
    B) a cold-blooded animal
    C) a warm-blooded animal
    D) an animal that gets most of its body heat from its metabolism
    E) an animal that regulates its body temperature by its behavior 
    D) an animal that gets most of its body heat from its metabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. By definition, an ectotherm___.
    A) is warm-blooded
    B) is cold-blooded
    C) can generate enough metabolic heat to keep its body temp. above that of its surroundings
    D) has a body temp. that varies considerably
    E) obtains most of its heat from its environment
    E) obtains most of its heat from its environment
  16. Which of the following tissues bind and support other tissues in the body?
    A) skin
    B) epithelial tissue
    C) muscle tissue
    D) nervous tissue
    E) connective tissues
    E) connective tissues
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Sweating _____. 
    A) helps the body thermoregulate
    B) is a major thermoregulatory mechanism in dogs
    C) results in irreversible dehydration
    D)happens only in hot days
    E) can be prevented by drinking adequate amounts of water
    A) helps the body thermoregulate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. What kind of feedback most directly maintains homeostasis?
    A) positive, because it keeps systems constant despite fluctuation in the extremal environment
    B) negative, because it tends to keep a system at a desirable set point or normal range
    C) positive, because it magnifies deviations from the set point
    D) negative, because it accentuates fluctuations and keeps the system from reaching equilibrium
    E) none of the listed response is correct
    B) negative, because it tends to keep a system at a desirable set point or normal range
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. In the late fall, bats hibernate in clusters with many bats pressed together and holding on to one another. Which of the following statements does NOT represent an advantage of this behavior?
    A) huddling behavior decreases the amount of food needed for bats to stay warm
    B) In this configuration less heat is needed for each bat, and therefore each bat requires less food
    C) huddling behavior helps bats stay warm while they feed
    D) any heat generated by any bat is shared by other bats
    E) less surface area is exposed to the environment.
    C) huddling behavior helps bats stay warm while they feed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. During the night, the dormouse forages and eats, but during the day, its body temp and heart rate drop significantly, This is an example of what physiological process?
    A) hibernation
    B) acclimatization
    C) torpor
    D) thermogenesis
    E) thermoregulation
    • C) torpor
    • (is a physiological state in which metabolism is slowed temporarily; the decrease in heart rate and body temp each day in the dormouse)
  21. Most cells at microscopic because at this small size_____
    • A) the ratio of surface area to cell volume is maximized 
    • (Cells obtain all of their nutrients and gases across the plasma membranes. Because volume increases at a faster rate than surface area, large cells are limited by the area available for diffusion)
  22. Complete the following word association: Albatross is to organism as intestine is to _____
    A) organ
  23. Which of the following are types of cells found in epithelial tissues?
    A) squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells
    B) erythocytes and leukocytes
    C) chondrocytes and osteoblasts
    D) fibroblasts and osteoblasts
    E) neurons
    A) squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The wolf, his coat glowing in the early spring sunshine, sat atop a cold boulder after unsuccessfully pursuing a plump jackrabbit. He continued to pant while ______.
    Heat radiated from his tired body
  25. Every time you eat a cookie or candy bar, your blood sugar increases. This triggers an increase in blood levels of the hormone___.
    • Insulin 
    • (facilitates the entry of glucose into a wide variety of body cells and quickly removes glucose from the blood)
  26. The fat-soluble vitamins include___.
    Vitamins A, D, E, and K
  27. Acid chyme _____.
    Contains food and gastric juice and moves through the pyloric sphincter
  28. Which of the following statements is true?
    A) Ingestion is the act of eating
    B) Absorption breaks bonds using enzymatic hydrolysis
    C) Undigested materials pass out of the alimentary canal by absorption 
    D) Ingestion breaks down food into molecules small enough for body to absorb 
    E) The last stage of food processing is absorption 
    A) Ingestion is the act of eating
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following statements about nutrition and digestion is true?
    A) chemical digestion typically precedes mechanical digestion in wolves
    B) small sugars are joined by enzymatic hydrolysis to form large carbohydrates
    C) Feeding and digestion are synonyms
    D) elimination rids the body of excessive nutrients
    E) During absorption small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars are absorbed 
    E) During absorption small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars are absorbed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. The natural antacid that protects the intestines against stomach acid is produced by the ___.
    • Pancreas
    • (produces several hydrolytic enzymes and an alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate that offsets the acidity of chyme from the stomach)
  31. IN general B vitamins function in your body as ______.
    • Coenzymes 
    • (Vitamins are organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts and often function as coenzymes in key metabolic processes.
  32. _______ are needed in the diet as components of teeth and bone, as parts of certain enzymes, for normal muscle and nerve function and for water balance.
    • Minerals 
    • (are also necessary for some hormones, for oxygen transport and in nucleic acids and ATP)
  33. Which of the following is an adaptation to a carnivorous diet?
    A) longer intestines
    B) lare population of symbiotic bacteria and protists in special fermentation chambers in the alimentary canal
    C) reingestion of feces
    D) sharp, pointed teeth
    E) enlarged cecum
    D) sharp, pointed teeth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following animals uses only intracellular digestion?
    A) hydra 
    B) earthworm
    C) sponge
    D) human
    E) flatworm
    • C) sponge
    • (have no digestive tract. Sponges digest their food entirely through intracellular mechanisms)
  35. Which of the following processes, structures, or conditions are properly matched?
    A) chief cells... diarrhea
    B) acid chyme back/flow... heartburn
    C) mochas cells.. ulcers
    D) peristalsis... heartburn
    E) parietal cells... diarrhea
    B) acid chyme back/flow... heartburn
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following is acquired outside of an animal's diet?
    A) oxygen
    B) organic molecules
    C) chemical energy
    D) all the listed response are needs that must be supplied through diet
    E) essential nutrients
    A) oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Pepsin is an enzyme produced in the stomach that attack proteins to break them down into smaller partied molecules. Which of the following statements about this enzyme is true?
    A) Pepsin will cease to function in the small intestine as basic secretions from the pancreas neutralize the pH
    B) salivary amylase activates pepsin
    C) the activity of pepsin will speed up in the small intestine because the pH becomes less acidic
    D) Pepsin will continue to work at the same rate as it moves through the intestine until all the protein is broken down
    A) Pepsin will cease to function in the small intestine as basic secretions from the pancreas neutralize the pH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Despite long days grazing on tall grasses, several of the cattle released into a new pasture have oddly shaped or broken legs and often lay down. these cattle might suffering from _______.
    Phosphorus deficiency (Phosphorus is a key mineral in the proper formation of bones, and phosphorus deficiency also leads to weakness.)
  39. A breakfast cereal advertises that it contains essential vitamins and minerals. In this context the word essential means_______.
    That the nutrients must be supplied in the diet and cannot be made in the body. (Essential nutrients are materials that must be obtained in reassembled form because animal's cells cannot make them from raw materials)
  40. Which of the following might make the most effective anti-ulcer medication? 
    A) a chemical that stimulates the chief cells of the gastric pits
    B) chemical that kills bacteria in the stomach
    C) a chemical that stimulates the parietal cells of the gastric pits
    D) a chemical that inhibits epithelial cell that produces mucus 
    E) a chemical that stimulates the secretion of bile
    • B) chemical that kills bacteria in the stomach
    • (most gastric ulcers result from damage to the stomach lining caused by the acid-tolerant bacterium Helicobacter pylori)
  41. How would you expect the digestive system of a hawk to compare with that of a seed-eating sparrow?
    • The sparrow's digestive system would be longer.
    • (Plant material is more difficult to digest than animal tissues, so herbivores typically have longer digestive systems than carnivores)
  42. During some types of antibiotic treatments, patients often experience diarrhea because ___.
    • The bacterial flora of the large intestine that normally break down undigested organic material are killed by the antibiotics 
    • (Normally as bacteria digest and assimilate previously undigested organic molecules, the osmotic pressure within the large intestine is reduced, favoring water reabsorption)
  43. Gallstone surgery sometimes requires that the gallbladder be removed. Patients are then advised to avoid ingesting large amounts of fat because ______.
    • the gallbladder stores large quantities of bile, which is used to emulsify fats.
    • (made continuously by the liver and stored by the gallbladder, large amounts of bile can be delivered when fatty chyme is present.)
  44. In vertebrates food is moved along the length of the digestive system by _____.
    • Peristalsis 
    • (are rhythmic waves of contraction by smooth muscles in the wall of the alimentary canal, pushes food along the tract).
  45. Gas exchange in the gills of a bony fish is maximized by which of the following?
    A) negative pressure breathing
    B) a tracheal system
    C) positive pressure breathing
    D) alveoli
    E) countercurrent exchange
    • E) countercurrent exchange
    • ( the orientation of capillaries in the gills of bony fish is such that the direction of blood flow is opposite to the direction of water passing over the gills, facilitating efficient gas exchange)
  46. A patient with which of the following conditions would probably benefit by injections of purified multipoint stem cells?
    A) all of the listed responses
    B) sickle-cell disease 
    C) AIDS
    D) leukemia
    E) impaired resistance to infection
    A) all of the listed responses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. All known birds and mammals have ____.
    A) a single circulatory system and a 2-chambered heart
    B) a single circulatory system and a 4 chambered heart 
    C) a double system and a 2 chambered heart
    D) a double circulatory system and a three-champ heart
    E) a double circulatory system and a 4 chambered heart
    E) a double circulatory system and a 4 chambered heart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. What is the physiological cause of a heart attack?
    A blood clot lodging in a blood vessel supplying the heart
  49. Which of the following decreases blood pressure?
    A) contraction of the ventricles of the heart
    B) vasoconstriction
    C)all of these 
    D) vasodilation
    E) the peptide endothelin
    • D) vasodilation
    • (is the increase in diameter of blood vessels, which would lower blood pressure)
  50. Heart valves function to _____.
    • Keep blood moving forward through the heart
    • (the valves prevent back flow, blood movement is restricted to one direction)
  51. What would you expect to seen in an individual with low levels of blood protein in the capillaries?
    • edema in the body tissues 
    • (lack of sufficient proteins in the capillaries will decrease the osmotic pressure, resulting in an accumulation of fluid in the body tissues)
  52. Blood leaves the inferior vena cava and flows directly into the ____.
    • right atrium
    • (the inferior vena cava is the major vein carrying blood from the capillaries of the lower body into the heart via the right intake chamber the atrium)
  53. Which chambers of a human heart receive and pump oxygenated blood?
    • The left ventricle and left atrium 
    • ( the left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs pumps it into the aorta for further distribution to the body)
  54. Which type of epithelial tissue would you suppose covers the gills of axolotls?
    • simple squamous epithelium
    • (simple means "one-cell thick" and squamous means "flat cell". A respiratory surface needs to be thin, moist epithelium)
  55. Which of the following components of the mammalian gas exchange system has a surface covered by a thin film without cilia?
    • alveoli
    • (the tiniest bronchioles dead end in tiny air sacs called alveoli, which have a very thin epithelium and no cilia)
  56. When you hold you breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breath again?
    A) falling oxygen concentration
    B) falling carbon dioxide concentration
    C) none of the listed responses is correct
    D) rising carbon dioxide concentration
    E) rising oxygen concentration
    • rising carbon dioxide concentration 
    • (The breathing control centers in the brain indirectly monitor the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood through its effect on pH in CSF)
  57. What is atherosclerosis?
    • hardening of the arteries by accumulation of fatty deposits
    • (one of the leading causes of heart attacks)
  58. Function of the pulmonary circuit in a dog is to ______.
    • Carry carbon dioxide to the lungs and pick up oxygen from the lungs
    • (as blood flows through the capillary beds in the lungs, oxygen is absorbed into the blood and carbon dioxide is released into the lungs)
  59. The maximum amount of air a person can exhale after maximal inhalation is called____.
    • Vital capacity 
    • (is the amount of air a person can exhale after maximal inhalation)
  60. Which structure in a human is most similar in function to the gill lamellae of a fish?
    • alveoli
    • (In a fish the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs at the gill lamellae; these events occur at the alveoli in the human lung)
  61. What is the correct order of structures through which air passes as it is inhaled by a typical mammal
    • Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, aveolus
    • (air enters through the nostrils and nasal cavity, and pass through the pharynx and the larynx. from there the air passes into the trachea and into thro bronchi. Each bronchus branches reputedly into bronchioles, which eventually terminate in tiny air sacs called alveoli.
  62. What causes CO2 in the blood to decrease?
    • hyperventilation
    • (removes CO2)
  63. Pressure is greatest in the ventricles when ____
    The ventricles contract
  64. The SA node generates an electrical impulse from its location in ______.
    • The right atrium, causing atrial contraction 
    • (the senatorial node is located in the wall of the right atrium)
  65. What is the major reason that land-dwelling mammals evolved lungs rather than gills as a primary respiratory organ?
    • Protecting gas-exchange surfaces from desiccation is difficult in terrestrial environments
    • ( Gills function only when immersed in fluid. Some land snails manage with gills, but the gills are small and protected in a moist chamber)
  66. An open circulatory system_____
    • Allows interstitial fluid to mix freely with vascular fluid
    • (in animals with an open circulatory system, the vascular fluid also functions as the interstitial fluid)
  67. B lymphocytes
    multiply and make antibodies that circulate in blood and lymph
  68. Which type of cell is responsible for causing apoptosis in center cells and virus-infected cells?
    natural killer cells
  69. Which molecules trigger the adaptive immune response?
    antigen
  70. IN a series of immune system experiments, the thymus glands were removed from baby mice. What would you predict as a likely result?
    • The mice readily accepted tissue transplants
    • ( the thymus is necessary for the proper maturation of T cells. Without helper and cytotoxic T cells, there would no effective immune response)
  71. What is the role of dendritic cells in primary immune response?
    Dendritic cells present antigen to and thus activate, helper T cells
  72. What cells are part of the innate second line of defense in the immune system?
    The second line of defense includes phagocytic white blood cells, such as macrophages, antimicrobial proteins, and the inflammatory response
  73. Antibodies are in which class of proteins?
    receptor
  74. A viral infection in cell results in ____.
    • Secretion of interferon
    • (Interferon is released by virus-infected cells. Taken up by uninfected cells, it induces them to produce molecules that inhibit viral replication
  75. Which of the following is a characteristic of adaptive immunity?
    A) it is common to all animals
    B) it has the ability to detect very specific pathogens 
    C) Responses are active immediately upon infection
    D) Responses are the same whether or not the pathogen has been previously encountered
    E) it is found only in invertebrates
    B) it has the ability to detect very specific pathogens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Phagocytosis is best defined as _____.
    The cellular ingestion of a foreign substances
  77. Which of the following is part of the inflammatory response?
    A) production of memory cells
    B) clonal selection of B and T lymphocytes followed by the production of effector cells 
    C) constriction of arterioles
    D) production of antibodies
    E) local vasodilation
    • E) local vasodilation
    • (histamine triggers vasodilation and increased permeability of nearby capillaries; this increased blood flow is what causes redness and fever during an inflammatory response
  78. What would most likely happen to microbes in the blood?
    They are phagocytes by macrophages in the spleen

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