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Who is Rosa Parks?
Rosa Parks was a black woman from Mississippi who was arrested on a bus on the 1st of December because she refused to give a white person her seat after the white section of the bus was full. This story interested many people around the world and lots wanted to help.
What were the short term effects?
Beginning a few days later, the blacks decided to boycott the buses; they decided to walk to and from work every day. Martin Luther King's leadership kept it going. This went on for 381 days. It ended segregation on buses, the Supreme Court banned it and the bus companies followed. It was a win, but a small one, nevertheless it got the Civil Rights Movement started.Although, many blacks suffered at the hands of white people. Gangs of white people beat up blacks and police took the driver's licence off any black driver who was giving lifts to the boycott.
What were one of the long term effects? (Education)
Education changed. The Supreme Court said that segregation in schools was wrong. But whites did not accept/follow this law. In 1957, nine very intelligent black teenagers were allowed to attend Little Rock, which had always been an all white school. On the first day, Elizabeth Eckford, arrived at the school alone, a mob of angry whites threatened to kill her. During this, local police did nothing to help her, but she was 'rescued' by a white woman and put on a bus. Three days later the President sent paratroops to Little Rock to escort the black students to school every day. After a year the state governor closed this school down, some other state governors did the same to stop desegregation.
What was another one of the long term effects? (Public Facilities)
Black Americans in the South were allowed to buy goods, although in the department stores they were not allowed to use the lunch counters. The staff refused to serve them, but they continued to occupy seats at the counters every day. At first, they were sworn at and ketchup, salt and other things were thrown over them.
Definition of slave?
To be a slave is to be owned by another person, some slaves in the past were not even allowed basic information about themselves.
What did slaves do?
At first slaves were used in the Caribbean as well as Central and South America. They worked on plantations producing sugar, coffee, rice, tobacco and cotton. Some slaves were used as servants.
Motives for slavery? (3)
- A source of very cheap labour
- Some slaves were craftspeople who made the owner leather goods and jewellery.
- Some people believed they were superior to others and had a right to enslave them.
Name ways people became slaves? (5)
- Many were captured in war, in africa tribes would fight and they would sell their prisoners as slaves
- People were mad slaves as a punishment for a crime
- Some were kidnapped
- Many were born into slavery
- Some agreed to be slaves to escape starvation and poverty
The triangular trade
- The North American Colonies> Western Europe: with sugar, cotton, tobacco etc.
- Great Britain>West africa: with guns, cloth, rum,metal etc.
- West Indies> West Africa: the middle passage- to the New World with slaves.
How did colonisation help bring slaves to the Americas
European countries developed colonies in the Americas but due to extremely hot weather they used native indians. The indians caught a disease and over 18 million of them died within a few decades. They needed a stronger type of worker, they chose Africa, where the Portuguese had a thriving slave trade. They began sending slaves to the americas and by 1600, 80% were bound for this New World.
Reasons for slavery? (Southern View)
- They depended on farming. Cotton was vital and they needed slaves to produce it.
- Their cotton trade with other countries would suffer without slaves
- Mrs Stowe and the Abolitionists were troublemakers
- If they agreed to the no slaves in the new states rule, then they wanted all escaped slaves returned.
Reasons against? (Northern View)
- They felt it was unfair that the Southern people could produce things far cheaper because of using slaves
- They want to protect their industries, by taxing foreign goods to keep them out
- They do not want slaves to be put in the new states, They want more free states than slave states.
- They didn't like to return escaped slaves. Abolitionists say slavery is wrong and the book Uncle Tom's Cabin shows the brutality of slavery.
Act of union:
in 1800 this act was passed. It abolished the parliament in Dublin and stated that all of Ireland would be ruled from the Westminster parliament in London
System whereby the people freely elect a government on a regular basis
Unjust treatment based on prejudice, especially race and religion
Gerrymandering, give an example
The practise of drawing electoral boundaries in a way that favours one particular group. For example, Derry.
The idea that Ireland should have its own parliament in Dublin, to take charge of smaller matters, while Westminster parliament would deal with the major issues
Free from control of another country
A person who wants independence in Ireland or wanted a United Ireland. Generally Catholic.
The artificial division of a country, the Government of Ireland act in 1920 divided Ireland into 2 parts.
A system of voting where political parties get a number of seats in proportion to the number of votes they receive, this was abolished in Northern Ireland in 1922.
A person who wants total independence for Ireland. After 1920 they wanted a united Ireland, and are willing to use force if needed.
The government of a country by its own people
A person who wants the political union between GB and NI to continue and do not want a UNited Ireland. Generally Protestant.
the Act of Union is introduced, The parliament in Dublin is abolished, and Westminster parliament will take over for Ireland.
The Third Home Rule Bill was introduced and was accepted by the House of Commons for Dublin to have a government,
Easter Rising. It was a rebellion, that was easily defeated by the British, but the British started killing rebels, which gained sympathy for them.
They fight for their freedom. Both sides commit terrible atrocities.
Government of Ireland Act, Ireland has been divided into 2 parts, Ireland and Northern Ireland, and Ireland will have a parliament in Dublin to take care of smaller matters.