GU HA Male/Female

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MeganM
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311886
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GU HA Male/Female
Updated:
2015-11-23 16:46:25
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health assessment seidel
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GU,HA
Description:
Ch 16, 18-20
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  1. _________ often develop in the breast as sebaceous glands hyptertrophy.
    Montgomery tubercles
  2. What do retractions and dimpling of the breast signify?
    contraction of fibrotic tissue that may occur w/ carcinoma
  3. What does peau d'orange in a breast indicate?
    edema caused by blocked lymph drainage in breast cancer
  4. Unilateral venous patterns can be produced by dilated superficial veins as a result of what?
    increased BF to a malignancy
  5. A peppering of contender, nonsuppurative Montgomery tubercles is a ________ finding.
    common expected
  6. Recent ______ inversion of a perviously everted nipple suggests malignancy.
    unilateral
  7. In some cases, supernumerary nipples may be assoc w/ cogenital ______ or ________ anomalies, particularly in whites.
    • renal
    • cardiac
  8. The name of supraclavicular nodes.
    Sentinal nodes (Virchow nodes)
  9. When should nipple compression be done?
    When pt reports spontaneous discharge
  10. A lobular feel of grandular tissue in the breast is a _________ finding.
    expected variation
  11. Fine, granular feel of breast tissue in older women in a _________ finding.
    expected variation
  12. A firm transverse ridge of compressed tissue may be felt along teh lower edge of the breast. Expected or not? Mistaken for what?
    • expected variation; 
    • breast mass (but is actually r/t cycle)
  13. What is commonly expressed in newborns' breasts with a gentle squeeze? When does it disappear?
    • witch's milk
    • usually w/in 2 weeks (can last up to 3 mos)
  14. If a male in puberty has unilateral or bilateral subareolar masses, is this normal? When will it disappear?
    • yes
    • within a year
  15. In pregnant women, the breasts feel _______ b/c of hypertrophy of mammary alveoli.
    lobular
  16. When, where, and why may telangiectasis develop?
    • durind second trimester
    • upper chest, arms, neck, face
    • elevated estrogen
  17. In postemenopausal women, a _________ feel on palpation replaces the lobular feel of grandular tissue.
    finer granular
  18. _______ ducts drain a group of urethral glands and open into the vestibule on ea side of the female urethra.
    skene
  19. ________ glands secrete mucus into the introitus for lubrication in females.
    Bartholin
  20. The anterior wall of the vagina is separated from the bladder and urethra by CT called _________.
    vesicovaginal septum
  21. Why are the fornices of clinical importance (pocket around cervix is divided into fornices)?
    b/c the internal pelvic organs can be palpated through their thin walls
  22. The uterus of a parous woman may be larger by _________ cm in any of the dimensions.
    2-3cm
  23. The four pelvic joints in women usually have _____ movement.
    little
  24. The labia minora are realatively _______, thin, and pale.
    avascular
  25. What is responsible for uterine enlargement in pregnant women?
    • estrogen & progesterone first trimester
    • mechanical pressure of growing fetus after that
  26. Softening of the cervix.
    Goodell sign
  27. What causes the acidic pH in vaginal secretions in pregnant women?
    increase in lactic acid
  28. Women w/ a BMI of ________ have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.
    30 or higher
  29. When do most ovarian cancers develop?
    after menopause
  30. Labial swelling, redness, or tenderness, particularly if ________, may be indicative of a Bartholin gland infection.
    unilateral
  31. Discharge from the Skene glands or urethra usually indicates what kind of infection?
    gonococcal
  32. Swelling that is painful, hot to touch, and fluctuant indicates what type of infection of the Bartholin gland?
    gonococcal or staphylococcal & filled w/ pus
  33. A _______ mass is indicative of a Bartholin cyst and is the result of chronic inflammation of the gland.
    nontender
  34. A bluish cervix indicates?
    increased vascularity - maybe pregnancy
  35. Any reddened areas of the cervix should be considered what?
    • an unexpected finding
    • (esp if patchy or irregular borders)
  36. A pale cervix is assoc with?
    anemia
  37. A cervix pointed anteriorly indicates a ____ uterus.
    retroverted
  38. A cervix pointed posteriorly indicates a ____ uterus.
    anteverted
  39. Deviation of the cervix to the right or left may indicate what?
    • pelvic mass
    • uterine adhesions
    • pregnancy
  40. Projection of the cervix into the vagina greater than _______ may indicate a pelvic or uterine mass.
    3cm
  41. Ectropian is common in __________?
    • adolescents
    • pregnant women
    • those taking estrogen-containing BC pills
    • (NOT abnormal)
  42. ________ cysts are small, raised, white or yellow round areas on teh cervix. Expected or abnormal?
    • Nabothian
    • expected
  43. More severe degrees of cystocele are accompained by urinary ________.
    stress incontinence
  44. The consitency of the cervix in a nonpregnant woman is ______; during pregnancy it is _______.
    • firm (like tip of nose)
    • softer (like lips)
  45. Painful cervical movement suggests _________ or __________.
    • PID
    • a ruptured tubal pregnancy
  46. Normal shape of uterus.
    pear-shaped
  47. A ___ uterus indicates adhesions.
    fixed
  48. Where should you place your fingers on the abdomen to palpate the adnexal areas & ovaries?
    RLQ
  49. A _______ ovary is slightly to moderately tender on palpation.
    healthy
  50. What does a lax anal sphincter suggest?
    neuro deficit
  51. In a newborn girl, the ______ is often protruding, thick, and vascular and may simulate an extruding mass.
    hymen
  52. Vaginal discharge in infants & kids is usually ________ and may occur as teh result of irritation from diaper or powder.
    mucoid
  53. Are Skene glands usually palpable?
    no
  54. How can you assess whether or not the hymen is imperforate?
    Ask girl to cough - imperforate will bulge; open one will not
  55. A foul vaginal odor in a child is likely indicative of?
    a foreign body
  56. A straddle injury from a bicyle seat is generally evident over the _______.
    symphysis pubis
  57. What is the Naegele rule?
    • Calculates EDD
    • Add 1 year to first day of LMP
    • subtract 3 mos, add 7 days
  58. Increased vaginal secretions are the result of what in pregnancy?
    increased vascularity
  59. When does the cervix soften in pregnancy?
    • 2nd month
    • (also turns bluish from increased vascularity)
  60. The thinning of the cervix.
    effacement
  61. Shortening of the cervix (less than 29mm) ON ULTRASOUND midpregnancy indicates what?
    • risk for preterm delivery
    • (digital exams may miss it)
  62. Effacement usually ___________ the cervical dilation in primapara and _______ cervical dilation in multipara.
    • precedes
    • occurs with
  63. Standard range for fetal movement?
    10x in one hour to 10x in 12 hours
  64. Regarding fetal movements, when should a woman notify her HCP?
    less than 10 movements in 12 hours
  65. The occurrence of _________ fetal movements in ____ hours for ____ consecutive days while mom is at rest in LEFT lateral position needs further evaluation.
    • Three or less
    • 2
    • 2
  66. When should women start monitoring FM if there are risk factors?
    28 weeks
  67. The head of the fetus is detectable by _______.
    ballottement
  68. Palpation of the cephalic prominence of a fetus on the same side as the small parts suggests that the head is flexed and the ________ is presenting.
    vertex (optimal!)
  69. Palpation of the cephalic prominence on the SAME side as the back suggests that the presenting part is _______.
    extended
  70. When recording information obtained from abdominal palpation of a fetus, include what?
    • presenting part
    • lie (longitudinal, transverse, or oblique)
    • attitude of fetal head if it is the presenting part
  71. The relationship of the long axis of the fetus to the long axis of the mother.
    lie
  72. Braxton Hicks can occur when?
    as early as 3 mos gestation
  73. The regular occurence of more than _______ uterine contractions per hour before ____ weeks of gestation requires evaluation.
    • 4-6
    • 37
  74. _______ varicosities occur commonly during pregnancy.
    vulvar
  75. In older adult females, the urinary meatus may appear as an _________ or ____.
    • irregular opening
    • slit
  76. In older adult females, the vagina is _____ and _____, and rugae are absent.
    • narrower 
    • shorter
  77. In older adult females, the cervix may seem ______ mobile if it protrudes less far into the vaginal canal.
    less
  78. In older adult females, the uterus size ______ and may not be ______.
    • diminishes
    • palpable
  79. In older adult females, are ovaries palpable?
    NO!  If so, suspect a tumor
  80. Any fetal insult during _____ gestation may lead to major anomalies of the external genetalia.
    8 or 9 weeks
  81. Separation of the prepuse from the glans us usually incomplete at birth and often remains so until what age in uncircumcised males?
    3-4 yrs
  82. Persistent erections unrelated to sexual stimulation can be r/t a current history of?
    • sickle cell anemia
    • leukemia
    • MS
    • DM
    • spinal cord injury
  83. Name for when the foreskin is tight and cannot be retracted.
    phimosis
  84. Phimosis may occur when?
    • during first 6 yrs of life OR
    • as result of recurrent inflammation of glans or glans and prepuce
  85. Inflammation of the glans penis.
    balanitis
  86. Recurrent balanitis (inflammation of glans) OR balanoposthitis (inflammation of glans penis AND prepuce) occurs when?
    • in uncircumcised boys;
    • may be caused by bacterial or fungal infections
  87. Phimosis is most commonly seen in men with?
    poorly controlled DM
  88. Inflammation of the glans penis AND the prepuce.
    balanoposthitis
  89. The opening of the urethral meatus in men should be ______ and _______.
    • glistening 
    • pink
  90. Bright erythema or a discharge of the urethral meatus in a male indicates ________.
    inflammatory disease
  91. Pinpoint or found opening of the urethral meatus in a male indicates ________.
    meatal stenosis
  92. Prolonged penile erection.
    Priapism
  93. Priapism can occur in pts with ___________ or as a result of impotence meds.
    • leukemia or 
    • sickle cell disease
  94. Why does the scrotum usually appear asymmetric?
    the left testicle has a longer spermatic cord and is lower
  95. Lumps in the scrotal skin are commonly caused by _______, also called _______.
    • sebaceous cysts
    • epidermoid cysts
  96. Unusual thickening of the scrotum caused by edema (pitting) is more likely a consequence of __________.
    general fluid retention r/t cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease
  97. In males, if the viscus is felt medial to the external canal, it probably represents a _________.
    direct inguinal hernia
  98. In what diseases may a testis be totally insensitive to painful stimuli?
    • syphilis
    • diabetic neuropathy
  99. A beaded or lumpy feeling upon palpation of the testicles may indicate?
    • DM 
    • old inflammatory changes like with TB
  100. A hooked, downward bowing of the infant's penis suggests?
    a chordee
  101. _______ of the external genitalia is common especially after a breech delivery.
    edema (males specifically, p.474)
  102. A retractile testis has a significant risk of becoming ________ testis and requires regular long-term follow up.
    • an ascending or
    • acquired undescended
  103. If the feeling of smoothness diappears as you palpate the spermatic cord, this indicates?
    invisible hernia
  104. What is an indication that the testes have descended during infancy?
    Well-formed rugae (even if testes are not apparent in scrotum)
  105. Acute painful swelling without discoloratino and a thickened or nodular epididymis suggests?
    epididymitis
  106. A consistently empty rectum in the presence of constipation is a clue to?
    Hirschsrpung disease
  107. Hemorrhoids in kids suggests?
    portal HTN
  108. No passage of stool in 24 hrs in a newborn leads to suspected what?
    • Hirschsprung disease
    • rectal atresia, or 
    • CF
  109. A _______ prostate consistency is indicative of a benign hypertrophy; _________ may indicate carcinoma, calculi, or chronic fibrosis.
    • rubbery or boggy
    • stony hard nodules
  110. Rectal pain is almost always indicative of?
    a local disease

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