Leukemia

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Author:
Prittyrick
ID:
311989
Filename:
Leukemia
Updated:
2015-11-23 21:49:41
Tags:
blood
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Description:
leukemia
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  1. Leukemia
    • malignacy of bone marrow cells
    • - destroys and invade
    • stem cells lose their ability to differentiate into RBC, WBC, and platelets
    • majority become (1) abnormal type of WBC (blasts) immature cells- they stay immature and they don't function (incr risk for infection)
    • - replace other bone cells in BM
    • - crowding- of leukemic abnormal cells- can go thru the lymphatic system
    • OVER proliferation
  2. Leukemia
    how it happens
    • unknown
    • caused by a combination of genetic factors +/or carcinogens
    • - chemicals, chemo agents, viruses, and radiation
  3. Leukemia
    diagnosis
    • CBC
    • - incre in blast > 20%, anemic, thrombocytopenic
    • Analysis of bone marrow
    • CT, LP
  4. leukemia types- cell types
    • lymphocytic
    • - immature lymphocytes
    • Myelogenous (non lymph)
    • - monocytes or granulocytes
  5. leukemia- acute/chronic
    • acute leukemia
    • - progress rapidly
    • - characterized by ineffective, immaturecells
    • - total loss of function
    • chronic leukemia
    • - more mature wbc;s
    • - more gradual progression (wax-wane early symptoms)
    • AML (adults) and ALL (children) most common
  6. leukemia symptoms
    • *** easy bleeding, bruising, freq., epitaxis, petechiae, DOE- fatigue, dec RBC
    • fatigue, weakness- anemia
    • fever, infection
    • unexplained wt loss
    • HA, n/v, seizures (if infiltrates CNS)
  7. leukemia s/s
    • tenderness of long bones, ribs, sternum (over crowding)
    • lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymphatic)
    • hepatomegaly/splenomegaly- both have lymphatic tissue
  8. leukemia
    diagnosis
    • diagnosis, classification, developmental stage
    • - peripheral blood results
    • - bone marrow analysis
    • lymph node biopsy
    • ** CML: philadelphia chromosome (chronic myelogeous leukemia) activates the ocogene and then mutation will occur- 95% of pt with this have this chromosome
  9. leukemia tx
    • Eradicate leukemic cells
    • achieving remission and restoration of hematopoeiesis
    • complete remission
    • - no s/s blood and BM wnl
    • partial remission
    • - no s/s, blood WNL, BM abnormal
  10. leukemia medical
    chemo
    • chemo
    • - induction: obtain remission
    • - consolidation: destroy remaining cells
    • - maintenance: prevent recurrence
    • Bone marrow transplant
    • - know definitive of this??
  11. leukemia assessment
    • Assessments
    • prevent infection ****
    • tx: pancytopenia
    • assess/manage s/e of chemo
    • pt education
    • support

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