Micro - Lecture - Test 1

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Micro - Lecture - Test 1
2015-12-03 00:06:09
Micro Lecture Test

Micro - Lecture - Test 1
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  1. Organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye
  2. Disease causing microbes
  3. Unicellular
    Peptidoglycan cell walls
    Binary fission
    For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis
  4. No nucleus
  5. This type of prokaryote can live in extreme environments
  6. Eukaryotes (nucleus)
    Chitin cell walls
    Use organic chemicals for energy
    Molds and mushrooms are multicellular, consisting of masses of mycelia, which are composed of filaments called hyphae
    Yeasts are unicellular
  7. Acellular
    Consist of DNA or RNA core
    Core is surrounded by a protein coat
    Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope
    Are replicated only when they are in a living host cell
  8. Name the three domains of microorganisms
    • bacteria
    • archaea
    • eukarya
  9. the hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter; a “vital force” forms life
    Spontaneous generation
  10. the hypothesis that living organisms arise from preexisting life
  11. All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells
    Cell theory
  12. the conversion of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine
  13. Treatment with chemicals is
  14. chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes
  15. the use of microbes to produce foods and chemicals, is centuries old
  16. a technique for biotechnology, enables bacteria and fungi to produce a variety of proteins, including vaccines and enzymes
    Recombinant DNA technology
  17. Microbes normally present in and on the human body are called
    normal microbiota
  18. the ability of the body to ward off disease
  19. new diseases and diseases increasing in incidence
    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
  20. the study of bacteria
  21. the study of fungi
  22. the study of viruses
  23. the study of protozoa and parasitic worms
  24. move around the nucleus #protons = #electrons
    Electrons (negatively charged)
  25. Electrons are arranged in what ??? that corresponds to different energy levels?
    electron orbitals (shells)
  26. Molecules hold together because electrons of the combining atoms form attractive forces, called
    Chemical bonds
  27. Name the three types of chemical bonds
    • Ionic
    • Covalent
    • Hydrogen
  28. attractions between ions of opposite charge
    ionic bond
  29. two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
    Covalent bonds
  30. ionic bond
  31. covalent bond
  32. a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to an O or N atom is attracted to another N or O atom in another molecule. It is the electromagnetic attraction between polar molecules.
    hydrogen bonds
  33. hydrogen bond
  34. Occur when atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new, larger molecules (example: sugar)
    synthesis reaction
  35. the synthesis of molecules in a cell (building up of molecules)
  36. Occur when a molecule is split into smaller molecules, ions, or atoms
    decomposition reactions
  37. What is the decomposition reactions in a cell (break down molecules)
  38. What is part synthesis and part decomposition
    exchange reactions
  39. Breaking down molecules that can readily go in either directionEach direction may need special conditions
    reversible reactions
  40. A + B combines to form --> AB
    synthesis reaction
  41. AB breaks down into --> A + B (example: sucrose-->glucose+fructose
    decomposition reaction
  42. NaOH + HCl --> NaCl + H2O
    exchange reactions
  43. A + B -> heat/water <- AB
    reversible reactions
  44. Substances that dissociate into one or more H+
    HCl --> H+ + Cl−
  45. Substances that dissociate into one or more OH−
    NaOH --> Na+ + OH−
  46. Substances that dissociate into cations and anions, neither of which is H+ or OH−
    NaCl --> Na+ + Cl−
  47. Large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements
    organic compounds
  48. Oganic compounds that are polymers consisting of many small repeating molecules
  49. Organic compounds that are smaller molecules are called
  50. organic compounds must contain what atom?
  51. The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule is the
    carbon skeleton
  52. This type of (group) is responsible for most of the chemical properties of a particular organic compound
    functional group
  53. are simple sugars with three to seven carbon atoms. glucose, fructose
  54. formed when two monosaccharides are joined in a dehydration synthesis.
  55. Cell structures and energy sources. Monosaccharides and disaccharides
  56. consist of tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis
  57. What macromolecule? Stores energy and primary components of cell membranes
    Consist of C, H, and O
    Are nonpolar and insoluble in water
  58. Type of fatty acid chain where the hydrocarbon are straight and can pack closely together = solid at room temperature also saturated with the max number of hydrogens
    saturated fats
  59. Type of fatty acid that has double bonds reduce the number of hydrogens. Can’t pack as closely together = liquid at room temperature
    unsaturated fats
  60. what makes up a triglyceride
    glycerol molecule that is covalently linked to 3 fatty acids
  61. –Contain glycerol, two fatty acids, and (in place of the third fatty acid) a phosphate group with some other molecule attached to its other end–The hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic, –the phosphate group end is hydrophilic. Thus, phospholipids are soluble in both water and oil.
    complex lipids
  62. what is a very important role of phospholipids?
    makes up the cell membrane
  63. proteins that speed chemical reactions
  64. move chemicals across membranes
    transporter proteins
  65. Proteins consist of subunits called
    amino acid
  66. bond that puts amino acids together to form proteins
    peptide bonds
  67. What protein structure is it  when the helix folds irregularly, forming disulfide bridges, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds between amino acids in the chain
    tertiary structure
  68. What is the most important for the function of a protein?
    primary structure
  69. sequence of what ??? in DNA makes up a gene?
    bases (adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T)
  70. Name the base pairs in DNA
    • A-T
    • C-G
  71. name the two types of nucleic acids
    • DNA
    • RNA
  72. Ribonucleic acid
    single-stranded molecule
    contains ribose
  73. what is the complementary base to adenine in RNA?
  74. transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism
    contains ribose, adenine, and three phosphate groups
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  75. Microscopy that Uses UV light
    Cells may be stained with fluorescent dyes (fluorochromes)
    fluorescence microscopy
  76. Microscopy that shows Light objects are visible against a dark backgroundLight reflected off the specimen enters the objective lens
    darkfield illumination
  77. Microscopy in which the Cells are stained with fluorochrome dyes Short-wavelength (blue) light is used to excite the dyesThe light illuminates each plane in a specimen to produce a three-dimensional image
    Confocal microscopy
  78. use of a single basic dye
    Simple stain
  79. Stain used to distinguish parts of cells
    special stains
  80. Major difference of bacteria from other cells
    • peptidoglycan cell wall
    • binary fission
  81. spherical shaped bacteria is also called
  82. rod shaped bacteria is also called
  83. name the three shapes of prokaryotic (bacteria) cells
    • coccus
    • bacillus
    • spiral
  84. arranged in diplococci, diplobacilli
  85. arrangements of staphylococci
  86. arrangements of streptococci, streptobacilli
  87. arrangements of bacteria divided in two planed
  88. arrangements of bacteria divided into four planes
  89. steptococcus
  90. staphylococcus
  91. diplococcus
  92. outside cell wall
    polysaccharide (sticky) extracellular layer
    prevents phagocytosis
  93. Move toward or away from stimuli
  94. Move toward or away from stimuli that is driven by chemicals
  95. Move toward or away from stimuli that is driven by light
  96. In spirochetesAnchored at one end of a cellRotation causes cell to move - what type of flagella is this?
  97. Required for colonization or biofilm formation
  98. facilitate the transfer of DNA from one cell to another (conjugation); attachment, draws it in, formation of a mating bridge, transfer of DNA
  99. Name the two types of cell walls
    • gram positive
    • gram negative
  100. what type of peptidoglycan is a Polymer of disaccharide
    Linked by polypeptide chains
  101. what type of peptidoglycan is Thin peptidoglycanOuter membrane, Periplasmic space, No teichoic acids
  102. important structures of a gram-negative cell
    • plasma membrane
    • periplasm
    • LPS
  103. form channels through membrane for entry and exit of solutes
    porins (proteins)
  104. What do chemoreceptors do for the cell?
    • detect nutrients
    • tell the cell which way to go to get the nutrients
  105. This type of bacteria has a waxy lipid wall
  106. has selective permeability
    contains enzymes for ATP production
    can be damaged by alcohols, detergents, ABX
    plasma membrane
  107. the sum of the chemical reactions in an organism
  108. provides energy and building blocks for anabolism
  109. uses energy and building blocks to build large molecules
  110. minimum energy needed to disrupt electronic configurations
    activation energy
  111. chemical reactions can occur when atoms, ions, and molecules collide
    collision theory
  112. macromolecules that help accelerate (catalyze) chemical reactions in biological systems
    Specific for a chemical reaction; not used up in that reaction
  113. Enzymes are highly specific based on their
    • primary  
    • secondary  
    • tertiary structures
  114. An enzyme without its cofactor, inactive
  115. apoenzyme plus cofactor, active
  116. transfer of a high-energy phosphate from a phosphorylated compound to ADP generating ATP
    substrate-level phosphorylation
  117. Electrons from a molecular energy source are transferred to NAD and FAD, passed through a series of electron carriers to oxygen (electron transport chain).
    oxidative phosphorylation
  118. capture the energy of light to produce ATP
  119. the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2)
    aerobic respiration
  120. the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is NOT O2
    anaerobic respiration
  121. a form of anaerobic digestion that generates ATP by the process of substrate-level phosphorylation.
  122. use of carbons from CO2 to make sugars
    carbon fixation
  123. a class of bacterial cells that use
  124. a class of bacterial cells that use
    light as energy source and organic compounds: alcohols, fatty acids, carbos
  125. a class of bacterial cells that Use inorganic compounds as energy source and CO2 as carbon source