Ch. 11 Weathering

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Ch. 11 Weathering
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  1. Geomorphology
    Study of the origin, evolution, shape and spatial distribution of landforms
  2. Denudation
    Process that wears away or rearranges landforms through the action of moving water, waves, wind, ice or gravitational forces
  3. Geomorphic Cycle
    • Landscapes undergo initial uplift followed by erosion and removal of earth materials that eventually reduces slope angles
    • suggests that all regions eventually evolve from young rugged landscapes into old erosional landscapes with subdued topography
  4. Equilibrium
    Forces such as friction, cohesion and gravity, inertia are balanced
  5. Disequilibrium
    shear forces unbalanced
  6. Geomorphic Threshold
    The point at which shear stress overcomes shear strength
  7. Destabilizing Events
    increase shear stress or decrease shear strength
  8. Endogenic forces
    Destabilizing events (uplift and earthquake)
  9. Exogenic forces
    (Rainfall, deforestation, road construction)
  10. Energy Sources
    Potential energy of position, heat energy from sun, kinetic energy, chemical energy from earth's interior
  11. Mass wasting
    Involves the downward movement of materials on slopes under the driving influence of gravity
  12. The 4 basic classes of mass movement
    • Fall
    • slide
    • flow 
    • creep
  13. Mass movements are defined by several factors
    • Speed
    • size 
    • motion
  14. Rock falls
    occur when a piece of rock on a steep slope becomes dislodged and subsequently falls down the slope
  15. Debris Avalanches
    Shallow landslides that travel down-slope as muddy slurries
  16. Mudflows
    tends to be slower, carry a larger percentage of earth materials, and are also more highly water-saturated
  17. Earth flows
    The slowest debris  flow, driest form of debris flow that occurs when wet ground breaks up and flows down-slope
  18. Soil creep
    A persistant mass movement of surface material
  19. Freeze-thaw cycles
    periods of wet and dry weather or thermal heating that produces soil expansion
  20. Solifluction
    occurs in cold regions where the upper few feet of regolith becomes waterlogged during the summer
  21. Scarification
    Human-induced mass movements
  22. Physical weathering
    Weathering can produce individual mineral particles
  23. Chemical weathering
    weathering that causes mineral particles to dissolve in water
  24. Regolith
    Loose broken rock at the surface formed by weathering and transportation processes
  25. Bedrock
    Parent material from which regolith and soil develops
  26. Dripstones
    Form as water containing dissolved carbonates slowly drips from cave ceilings
  27. Stalactites
    Form by growing down from the ceiling of caves
  28. Stalagmites
    Form by building up from the cave floor
  29. Columns
    Produced when stalactites and stalagmites meet
  30. physical weathering is generally more dominant in drier and or cooler climates

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