# Chapter 7: Electromagnetic spectrum

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The flashcards below were created by user dante01 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

1. Light is
2. Light is characterized by
wavelength and frequency
3. Wavelength (λ)
the distance between two corresponding points on a wave

-units:meters
4. Frequency (v)
• -a measure of the number of wave cycles that move through a point in space in 1s
• -Units: Hertz (Hz)
5. As wavelength increases, frequency
decreases
6. Bohr atom
• -Bohr suggested electrons exist in specific regions at defined distances from the nucleus
• -the electrons move in circular orbits
7. Orbitals
regions of space with a high probability of finding an electron
8. Principal energy level (n)
• -provides a general idea of the distance of an electron from the nucleus
• -as n increases, so does the distance from the nucleus
9. Sub levels and orbitals
• -s
• 1 orbital
• 2e

• -p
• 3 orbitals
• 6e

• -d
• 5 orbitals
• 10e

• -f
• 7 orbitals
• 14e
10. n=1 sublevels
• 1s
• -spherical in nature
11. aufbau principle
electrons occupy the lowest-energy levels first
12. Pauli exclusion Principle
• -no two electrons can occupy the same space
• -electrons must have opposite spins
13. n=2 sublevels
-2s

-2p
14. n=3 sublevels
3s

3p

3d
15. n=4 sublevels
4s

4p

4d

4f
16. Hund's rule
Each orbital in a sublevel must contain an electron before another electron can be added to any of the orbitals
17. Ionization Energy
-the energy required to remove a valence electron from a gaseous atom
18. Why does ionization energy increase up a group?
because the valence electrons become increasingly closer to the nucleus
19. Why does ionization energy increase from left to right in a period?
because the valence electrons are increasingly held more tightly by the nucleus, which is increasing the number of protons
20. Atomic size increases down a group because
valence electrons are in orbitals that extend further from the nucleus
21. Atomic size decreases from left to right because
electrons are held closer to the nucleus by the increasingly greater charge of the nucleus
22. As the number of protons increases, the ion size
decreases
23. For cations, was the charge increases, the ionic size
decreases
24. For anions, as the charge increases, the ionic size
increases

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 Author: dante01 ID: 312029 Filename: Chapter 7: Electromagnetic spectrum Updated: 2015-11-25 08:04:30 Tags: chem Folders: Description: study Show Answers:

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