Chapter 7: Electromagnetic spectrum

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Author:
dante01
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312029
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Chapter 7: Electromagnetic spectrum
Updated:
2015-11-25 03:04:30
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chem
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  1. Light is
    electromagnetic radiation
  2. Light is characterized by
    wavelength and frequency
  3. Wavelength (λ)
    the distance between two corresponding points on a wave 

    -units:meters
  4. Frequency (v)
    • -a measure of the number of wave cycles that move through a point in space in 1s
    • -Units: Hertz (Hz)
  5. As wavelength increases, frequency
    decreases
  6. Bohr atom
    • -Bohr suggested electrons exist in specific regions at defined distances from the nucleus
    • -the electrons move in circular orbits
  7. Orbitals
    regions of space with a high probability of finding an electron
  8. Principal energy level (n)
    • -provides a general idea of the distance of an electron from the nucleus 
    • -as n increases, so does the distance from the nucleus
  9. Sub levels and orbitals
    • -s
    • 1 orbital
    • 2e

    • -p
    • 3 orbitals
    • 6e

    • -d
    • 5 orbitals
    • 10e

    • -f
    • 7 orbitals
    • 14e
  10. n=1 sublevels
    • 1s
    • -spherical in nature
  11. aufbau principle
    electrons occupy the lowest-energy levels first
  12. Pauli exclusion Principle
    • -no two electrons can occupy the same space
    • -electrons must have opposite spins
  13. n=2 sublevels
    -2s

    -2p
  14. n=3 sublevels
    3s

    3p

    3d
  15. n=4 sublevels
    4s 

    4p

    4d

    4f
  16. Hund's rule
    Each orbital in a sublevel must contain an electron before another electron can be added to any of the orbitals
  17. Ionization Energy
    -the energy required to remove a valence electron from a gaseous atom
  18. Why does ionization energy increase up a group?
    because the valence electrons become increasingly closer to the nucleus
  19. Why does ionization energy increase from left to right in a period?
    because the valence electrons are increasingly held more tightly by the nucleus, which is increasing the number of protons
  20. Atomic size increases down a group because
    valence electrons are in orbitals that extend further from the nucleus
  21. Atomic size decreases from left to right because
    electrons are held closer to the nucleus by the increasingly greater charge of the nucleus
  22. As the number of protons increases, the ion size
    decreases
  23. For cations, was the charge increases, the ionic size
    decreases
  24. For anions, as the charge increases, the ionic size
    increases

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