Chapter 9: The Gaseous State
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All gases have relatively _________densities
Properties of gases
- -low densities
- -move rapidly
- -high velocities and kinetic energies
Why do all gases expand when heated?
-the temperature increase causes an increase in the kinetic energy of the gas molecules, making them move faster, collide harder and spread out
Warm or Cool gas has the greater density?
Why does a hot air balloon rise in the atmosphere?
- -hot air rises quickly and displaces the cooler air
- -most trips are in the morning or evening when air is cooler
What causes the balloon to inflate?
The air that you are blowing into a balloon causes pressure. If this pressure is larger than atmospheric pressure then the balloon will expand
total pressure exerted by gases in the atmosphere
Pressure (P) =
force of gas particles/ area of the container
Conversation factor: Pa to atm
1 atm/ 101,325 Pa
Conversation factor: atm to mmHg
760 torr/ 1 atm
Pressure is directly proportional to
- 1) Number of molcules (n)
- -more molecules = more collisions with walls =pressure
- 2) constant Temperature (T)
- 3) constant volume (V)
Pressure and volume relation
- -Inversely proportional
- -Boyle's law
- -as pressure increases, volume decreases
- -When the volume of a gas shrinks, the gas molecules have less space to move around and so they hit their
- container more often. The more frequently the gas impacts the container walls, the higher the pressure.
- So, as volume decreases, the pressure increases. If the container expands, the impacts are less frequent
- and the pressure decreases.
Volume and temperature relation
- As temperature increases, volume increases
- -charles law
- -as gas pressure increases, gas volume decreases
- -(T and n are held constant)
- -As gas temperature increases, gas volume increases
- -(P and n are held constant)
- -As thee number of moles of gas increases, gas volume increases
- -(P and T are held constant)
Combined Gas Law
- -Combining Boyle and Charles law
- -(n is held constant)
Calculate the density of ___at STP
= molar mass / 22.4 L
mass in grams (g) / molar mass (M)
What is the molar mass of the gas?
Conditions where real gases deviate from ideal gases
1) At high pressure (small volumes)
2) at low temperature
Partial Pressure =
Patm - PH2O
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