Mediastinum

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medstudent2017
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312084
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Mediastinum
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2015-11-26 07:41:53
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mediastinum
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Mediastinum
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  1. What is the dividing line for the mediastinum
    An imaginary line passing from the sternal angle to the lower border of the 4th thoracic vertebrae
  2. In the inferior mediastinum, what are the borders of the Anterior end
    • Sternum (anterior)
    • Anterior wall of the pericardium (posterior)
    • Diaphragm (inferior)
    • Imaginary line (superior)
  3. In the inferior mediastinum, what are the borders of the middle mediastinum
    • Anterior and posterior wall of pericardium
    • Imaginary line (superior)
    • Diaphragm
  4. In the inferior mediastinum, what are the borders of the posterior mediastinum
    • Posterior pericardial wall (anterior)
    • T5-T12 vertebrae (posterior)
    • Imaginary line (superior)
    • Diaphragm (inferiorly)
  5. Thyomoma
    A mass in the mediastinum that originates from the epithelial cell population in the thymus
  6. Germ cell tumors in the mediastinum are usually located where
    Anterior mediastinum
  7. Where does the arterial supply and venous drainage to the thymus originate
    • Branches of the internal thoracic arteries
    • Internal thoracic and inferior thyroid to the brachiocephalic
  8. Where are the brachiocephalic veins, and what veins merge to make it
    • Posterior to the sternoclavicular joints
    • Formed by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins
  9. How can the recurrent laryngeal nerve be used as an important landmark
    It travels directly under the aorta inferior to the ligamentum arteriosum
  10. What nerve passes behind the brachiocephalic veins
    Vegus nerve
  11. What does the blood from all of the structures from above the diaphragm drain into (besides the heart and lungs)
    Superior vena cava
  12. The superior vena cava ends at what costal landmark
    3rd costal cartilage on the right side where it enters the right atrium
  13. Superior vena cava syndrome
    • Compression of the vena cava by enlarged structures
    • Symptoms include adema in the arm and face, enlarged neck veins, and difficulty breathing
  14. What often happens to the circulation around the superior vena cava when its syndrome exists
    Collateral circulation forms with the Azygos, Internal thoracic, Lateral thoracic, and esophageal veins
  15. What is significant about the covering of the ascending portion of the aorta
    It is covered in pericardium
  16. Why is the distal ascending aorta subject to aneurysms
    Because it is not reinforced by fibrous pericardium
  17. What symptoms would follow an aortic aneurysm in the distal part of the ascending aorta
    Compression of the trachea and esophagus causing difficulty breathing and swallowing
  18. Where does the ascending part of the aorta begin in respect to the ribs
    Posterior to the right 2nd sternocostal joint
  19. Where is the descending part of the aorta located in respect to the vertebrae
    Left side of the 4th thoracic vertebrae
  20. What are the branches of the aortic arch first to last
    • Brachiocephalic trunk
    • Left common carotid art.
    • Left subclavian art.
  21. Retroesophageal Right Subclavian artery
    • Artery crosses posterior to esophagus to reach the right upper limb
    • May compress esophagus
  22. Dysphagia
    Difficulty swallowing
  23. What does the left vegus nerve give rise to from superior to inferior
    • Part of the cardiac plexus
    • Recurrent laryngeal nerve
    • Right pulmonary plexus
    • Esophogeal plexus
  24. The left vegas nerve passes the aorta and and lung how
    Over the arch of the aorta and posterior to the root of the lung
  25. Where is the cardiac plexus
    On the anterior surface of the tracheal bifurcation
  26. The cardiac plexus is formed by what type of nerve fibers
    Both sympathetic and parasympathetic
  27. What nerves feed the SA an AV nodes
    Post ganglionic sympathetic fibers from the cardiac plexus
  28. What is located on the right side of the trachea
    • Azygos vein
    • Right vegus nerve
  29. What structures are located anterior to the trachea
    • Left brachiocephalic vein
    • Arch of aorta
    • Origins of left common carotid and brachiocephalic art.
  30. What is located on the left side of the trachea
    • Arch of aorta
    • Left common carotid art.
    • Subclavian art.
    • Left vegus and phrenic nerves.
  31. The esophagus enters the superior mediastinum between what structures
    Trachea and vertebral column
  32. What external landmark can be used to identify the the bifurcation of the trachea
    Sternal angle
  33. What structures are located just anterior to the esophagus
    • Trachea
    • Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
    • Left principle bronchus
    • Left atrium
  34. The thoracic duct enters the venous drainage where
    At the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins
  35. What structures are located just posterior to the esophagus
    • Thoracic duct
    • Azygos vein
    • Right posterior intercostal arteries
  36. What is located directly to the left side of the esophagus
    • Aortic arch
    • Thoracic duct
  37. What is Esophageal Diverticula, and what are the three types
    • Sac or pouch arising from the esophagus
    • Hypopharyngeal (pouching at pharyx/esophagus)
    • True traction (protrusion at all wall layers)
    • False pulsion (herniation of the mucosa and submucosa in weak spots)
  38. The descending aorta lies posterior to
    • Root of left lung
    • Pericardium
    • Esophogus
  39. The aorta enters the abdomen by passing through the aortic hiatus at what vertebral level
    12 thoracic vertebrae
  40. What nerve is at a high risk of being damaged in an aortic arch aneurysm and mediastinal lymph enlargement
    Left recurrent pharyngeal
  41. Where are the posterior mediastinal lymph nodes located
    Around the esophagus and thoracic aorta
  42. Where do the mediastinal lymph get feeds from
    • Esophagus
    • Posterior pericardium
    • Diaphragm
    • Middle posterior intercostal spaces
  43. Where is lymph drained from the mediastinal lymph
    Thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct
  44. The azygos vein creates a collateral circulation between what important veins
    SVC and IVC
  45. How far does the hemiazygos vein extend vertically
    T9 vertebrae
  46. The thoracic duct carries lymph from what areas
    • Lower limb
    • Pelvic cavity
    • Abdominal cavity
    • Upper left limb
    • Left side of the thorax, head and neck
  47. Chylothorax
    Leakage of thoracic duct in the thoracic cavity
  48. Thoracic splanchnic nerves contain presynaptic nerve fibers from
    5th through 12th sympathetic ganglia
  49. The posterior and anterior esophageal plexus are formed by what nerves
    • Right vegus (Posterior)
    • Left vegus (Anterior)
  50. Inferiorly the anterior esophageal plexus forms
    Anterior vegal trunk
  51. Posteriorly, the posterior esophageal plexus forms the
    Posterior vegal trunk

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