Cardio_Respiratory Pharm

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medstudent2017
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312085
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Cardio_Respiratory Pharm
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2015-11-26 07:42:41
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pharmacology
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Cardio_Respiratory Pharm
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  1. What are the six category's of cardio pharm
    • Diuretics
    • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI)
    • Angiotension receptor blockers (ARB)
    • Beta Blockers (BB)
    • Calcium channel blockers (CCB)
    • Nitrates
  2. Hydrochlorothiazide mechanism of action
    Inhibits sodium reabsorption in the distal tubules leading to water loss, Na+ loss, and K+ loss
  3. What conditions is hydrochlorothiazide used for
    Moderate hypertension, in severe hypertension taken with other drugs
  4. Contraindications of Hydrochlorothiazide
    Dangerous taken with digitalis, MI, and chronic arrhythmias
  5. What is the most common side effects of Hydrochlorothiazide
    Potassium depletion
  6. Captopril has what mechanism of action
    (ACE inhibitor) It inhibits formation of angiotensin II and prevents the breakdown of bradykinin (dialates vessels)
  7. What are the therapeutic uses of captopril
    • Hypertension
    • Heart failure
    • MI
    • LV dysfunction
    • Diabetic nephropathy
  8. What are the adverse affects of Captopril
    • Hypotension (patients with hypovolemia)
    • Dry cough
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Angioedema (swelling of face and lips)
  9. Captopril should not be taken under what conditions
    Pregnancy
  10. What can captopril react with
    • Potassium supplements
    • NSAID's block vasodilating effects of bradykinin
  11. People with African descent have what unique characteristics with BP
    • They retain sodium more
    • More prone to high BP
    • Beta blockers don't work well with them
  12. What is a side effect of Captopril that isn't a side effect with Valsartan
    A Dry cough, but Valsartan does present dizziness sometimes
  13. What is the MOA of Valsartan
    • (ARB) Angiotensin II Receptor 1 Blocker
    • Prevents vasoconstriction and aldosterone release
  14. What are the therapeutic uses of Valsartan
    • Hypertension
    • Heart failure
    • LV dysfunction following MI
    • Unstable angina
  15. What are the adverse affects of Valsartan
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Hypotension
    • Renal damage
    • Dizziness
  16. When should Valsartan not be taken
    During pregnancy
  17. Propranolol has what MOA
    Non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker (AV, SA, Artria, Beta 1 and 2)
  18. What are the therapeutic uses of propranolol
    • Hypertension
    • Angina
    • Prevent MI
    • Anxiety
    • Supra-ventricular arrhythmia
  19. What are the adverse affects of Propranolol
    • Bradycardia
    • Hypotension
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Bronchospasm
    • Sexual Dysfunction
  20. What are the contraindictions of Propanolol
    • Don't withdraw quickly
    • Asthma
    • COPD
    • Bradycardia
    • Congestive heart failure
    • > 1st degree heart block
  21. What is the MOA for Nifedipine
    Inhibits calcium entry from L-type Ca+ channels in smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
  22. What are the therapeutic uses of Nifedipine
    • Chronic stable angina or vasospastic agina
    • Hypertension
    • Premature labor
  23. What are the adverse side effects of Nifedipine
    • Flushing
    • Orthostatic hypertension
    • Headache
    • Nausea
    • Sexual Dysfunction
  24. What are the contraindictions of Nifedipine
    • Hypersensitivity
    • Cardiogenic shock
    • Unstable Angina
    • Hypertensive emergencies
    • Acute MI
  25. What is Ischemia
    When the blood supply to a tissue is inadequate to meet the tissues metabolic demands
  26. What are the three biochemical components of Ischemia
    • Hypoxia
    • Insufficiency of nutrients
    • Accumulation of metabolic wastes
  27. Which is worse, ischemia or hypoxia
    Ischemia due to the increase in wastes and insufficient nutrients
  28. What are the three types of angina
    • Chronic stable (Narrowing of coronary art.)
    • Unstable (Blood clot within coronary art.)
    • Vasospastic (Stress induced)
  29. Nitroglyceride should not be used with
    Viagra
  30. MOA of Nitroglyceride
    • Convert to NO by aldehyde dehydrogenase in mitochondria
    • NO activates cGMP which in turn activates MLCK leading to smooth muscle relaxation
  31. What does a low dose of Nitroglycerine do
    • Decreases the preload by dilating systemic and pulmonary veins
    • Decrease EDP, heart size, O2 demand
  32. What does a high dose of nitroglycerine do
    Decreases arterial blood pressure, afterload, and myocardial workload
  33. What is nitroglyceride used for
    • Angina
    • Heart failure
    • MI
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Hypertension in heart surgery
  34. What are the adverse effects of nitroglycerine
    • Hypotension
    • Headache (very common)
    • Tachycardia
  35. MOA of mucolytics
    Alter the structure of mucus to decrease its viscosity as to help its removal
  36. What are the different types of mucolytics
    • N-acetylcysteine
    • Carbocysteine
    • Dornase alfa
  37. Dornase alfa is used specifically for
    Mucous secretions in cystic fibrosis by hydrolysing neutrophil DNA
  38. What do expectorants do
    Increase the volume of secretions in the respiratory tract
  39. What are the expectorants that are used often
    • Ipecacuanha "Ipecac"
    • Ammonium salts
    • Iodine compounds
    • Guaifenesin (not in US)
  40. Iodine salts in expectorants are cautioned why
    They are believed to thyroid suppression not to be used in children, pregnant women, or patients with goiter
  41. What are hydrating agents for, and what are some examples
    • They liquefy mucus
    • Menthol
    • Benzoin
    • Volatile oils
  42. What are the common used Anti-Tussive agents (cough suppressants), and how do they work
    • Dextromethorphan
    • Codeine (treat analgesics as well)
    • Pholcodine (not is US)
    • They increase the threshold of the brain for coughing stimuli
  43. Levodropropizine and moguisteine
    Drugs used for cough suppressants acting on the periphery not available in the US
  44. Dimenhydrinate
    • Diphenhydramine
    • Chlorpheniramine
    • Antihistamines used as cough suppressants, allergies and motion sickness
  45. Nasal decongestants
    • Ephedrine
    • Phenylephrine
  46. What are some bronchodilators commonly used
    • Beta 2 agonists
    • Albuterol (short acting)
    • Salmeterol (long acting)
    • M3 antagonists
    • Ipratropium
    • Tiotropium
  47. Prednisolone
    • Respiratory steroid
    • Decreases inflammation by inhibiting neutrophil migration, and decreases capillary permeability
  48. What precautions must be taken with patients taking prednisolone
    • When they stop they need to withdraw slowly
    • BP, Blood sugar, intraocular pressure, and bone density must be monitored
  49. Montelukast
    • Leukotriene receptor antagonist
    • Used for chronic treatment of asthma and seasonal allergies
  50. Methylxanthines (aminophylline, caffeine)
    • Phosphodiesterase inhibitor
    • Used for asthma
  51. Cromolyn sodium
    • Mast cell stabilizer, and prevents release of histamine and leukotrienes
    • Used for allergic disorders and asthma

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