What is an infection in a joint(s) with bacteria, virus, and/or fungus that causes cartilage damage?
Septic (infectious, bacterial) arthritis
DJD stands for what?
Degenerative joint disease
list a few radiographic signs for hip dysplasia
shallow acetabulum, flattened femoral head < half of the femoral head inside the acetabulum
when can dogs be certified hip dysplasia free?
after 2 years of age
what causes patellar luxation?
a shallow pattelar (trochlear) grove
how is a patellar luxation commonly treated?
surgically deepening the patellar groove
what other lesions may accompany a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament?
medial collateral and medial meniscus tears
how is a cranial cruciate rupture physically diagnosed?
cranial drawer sign
what is an osseous (bony) outgrowth seen radiographically?
what is the term for an increase in the density of bone
what is immobility and consolidation of a joint due to disease, injury, or sugical procedure?
what is destruction of a bone, seen as reduced density (i.e. blacker)
what is a luxation or dislocation
complete loss of contact between the articular surface of a joint
partial loss of contact between articular surfaces of a joint
what is the most common direction of hip (coxofemoral) luxation?
why are articular fractures difficult to treat?
must achieve anatomical reduction and rigid skeletal fixation to perfectly align the cartilage surface ( no step defect) or it will rapidly lead to DJD
what is the possible sequela to Salter type 5 fracture (compression)?
Angular limb deformity (valgus and vargus-deviation of bones from the axis of the limb past the joint)
What is the valgus and varus? how do you remember which is which?
VaLgus:lateral deviation of bones past the joint.
Varus:medial deviation of bones past the joint.
"L" in valgus for lateral deviation.
What results from twisting or overstretching a joint, causing a ligament to tear or separate from its bony attachment?
What is inflammation of a bursae?
what muscles must be transected to remove the entire forelimb, including the scapula?
all extrinsic muscle of the forelimb
what is atrophy of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles causing a prominent scapular spine called and what it causes it?
sweeney, suprascapular nerve damage
what results from radial nerve paralysis of the extensors of the thoracic limb?
inability to stand ( the triceps can't extend the elbow), knukling over the digits
what is the most important layer that must be opposed when closing a paramedian midline incision?
external rectus sheath
what is the most important structure to close in a midline incision?
how would you locate the trachea for an emergency tracheostomy?
skin incision in the ventral neck, separate the strap mm.
what muscle and nerve must be functional to bear weight on the pelvic limb?
Quadriceps m., femoral nerve
what muscles are paralysed with obturator nerve damage, resulting in lateral slipping on a slick surface?
why does an animal knuckle over on the pelvic limb with fibular (peroneal) nerve damage?
paralysis of the extensors of the digits
what is the only laryngeal muscle which opens the glottic cleft?
cricoarytenoideus dosalis m.
what muscles do the facia nerve innervate? clinical significance?
muscles of the facial expression, orbicularis oculi m.
what muscles are innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve?
muscles of mastication
what do the 3rd, 4th, and 6th cranial nn (oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens) innervate?
extrinsic muscles of the eye
what does the hypoglossal nerve innervate?
motor to the muscles of the tongue
what muscles are innervated by both cranial nn.9 and nn.10 (glossopharyngeal and vagus)?
muscles of the pharynx
what is the injection of a substance into a muscle? how is done?
intamuscular(IM) injection; always draw back on (aspirate) the syringe before injecting to make sure the needle is not in a vessel (see blood in the hub if in a vessel)
why is a broken neck result in respiratory paralysis?
phrenic nerve to the diaphram arises from the cervical and brachial plexuses.
what is the panniculus (cutaneous trunci) response?
contraction of the cutaneoustrunci muscle in response to a pin prick to the trunk
what is the reflex arc for the panniculus response?
sensation from the skin of the trunk over the thoracic and lumbar spinal nn. to the spinal cord, up the cord to the thoracic nerve, out to the cutaneous trunci m.
clinically, what is the panniculus response used to evaluate?
level of the thoracic spinal cord damage
where is the spinal cord damage if the panniculus response is absent caudal to the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebrae?
level of T10
for standing large animal flank surgeries, what must be blocked?
both the dorsal and ventral branches of the abdominal nerves as the dorsal branches are sensory to the top of the flank.
what nerve must be considered when removing the anal glands?
caudal rectal n,;damage can result in paralysis of the external anal sphincter, thus, fecal incontinence (likely leading to early demise).
define clonus/ clonic muscular spasms?
rapidly alternating involuntary muscular contraction and relaxation (UMN sign)
how does a tetanic animal present?
pump handle tail, saw horse stance, lockjaw, and sardonic grin
how does coonhound paralysis present?
ascending flaccid paralysis (the pelvic limbs first then the front limbs)
describe the pathophysiology of tick paralysis?
blocks neuromuscular junctions resulting in a flaccid paralysis that ascends the spinal cord
how does tick paralysis present?
flaccid paralysis that ascends the spinal cord
describe the pathophysiology of a roarer/recurrent laryngeal n. damage
paralysis of the crioarytenoideus dorsalis m., (open glottic cleft), resulting in a roaring sound when breathing
what is a common serious injury of all the nerves of the forelimb
complete avulsion(tearing of the brachial plexus associated with the HBC (hit by car)
what are signs of complete avulsion of the brachial plexus?
complete paralysis, extended flaccid limb, unable to support weight and dragging dorsum of paw
what is sweeney?
damage to the suprascapular nerve, resulting in paralysis of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles acutely, thus, lateral instability of the shoulder joint. With time muscle atrophy corrects the instability, but results in a prominent scapular spine most common in horses
what is the most common and clinically significant nerve problem of the forelimb?
what are the two types of radial nerve injury?
high and low radial nerve injury
what are the signs of high radial nerve paralysis?signs of low radial nerve paralysis
high- inability to bear weight on the limb, dropped elbow and knuckling over on the digits. low- knuckling over on digits
what sensory loss is diagnostic for radial nerve injury?