Broader Views of Development
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Infancy (birth–1 year)
If basic needs are met, infants develop a sense of trust. If these needs are not adequately satisfied, infants develop a mistrust of others.
Toddlerhood (1–2 years)
If toddlers can control their own actions and act independently, they develop a sense of autonomy. If they fail, they experience shame and doubt their own abilities.
Preschool (3–5 years)
If preschoolers can get what they want while acting responsibly, they develop a sense of initiative. If their impulses are not kept in check by a sense of guilt, they become undisciplined. If they are made to feel overly guilty, this will inhibit their initiative
Elementary school (6–12 years)
If children master the knowledge and skills necessary for adult life, they develop a sense of competence. If they are unable to achieve competence, they feel inferior and develop low self-esteem
Adolescence (13–18 years)
Teenagers struggle to develop a sense of identity by experimenting with different roles and integrating them into a single identity. If they fail to develop their own personal identity, they become confused about who they are
Young adulthood (19–45 years)
If young adults successfully develop close relationships, they gain a sense of intimacy. If they are unable to develop such relationships, they feel socially isolated
Middle adulthood (46–65 years)
If the middle-aged believe that they are contributing to the world and the next generation, they develop a sense of generativity. If they fail to do so, they experience a sense of stagnation
Late adulthood (66 years and up)
If the elderly have successfully managed the previous crises in their lives, they feel a sense of integrity. If they regret many of their life choices, they feel a sense of despair
is the progressive deterioration of the body that culminates in death
the ending of menstruation
Capacity for deductive reasoning and the ability to use new information to solve problems; it is relatively independent of education and tends to decline in old age
Cognitive skills and specific knowledge of information acquired over a lifetime; it depends heavily on education and tends to remain stable over the lifetime
5-stage theory about how people cope with their impending death
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