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2015-11-26 07:52:33

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  1. Erythrocytes, granular leukocytes and monocytes are all produced from
    Progeny of stem cells
  2. What is the stem cell that all blood cells arise from
    Pluripotential stem cell
  3. The two mother cells that the pluripotential stem cell gives rise to are
    • Multipotential Myeloid stem cells
    • Multipotential Lymphoid stem cells
  4. What are all the cells that arise from the myeloid stem cells
    • Erythrocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • Monocytes
    • Megakaryocytes
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Everything but T, B, and plasma
  5. What blood cells arise from Lymphoid stem cells
    • Lyphocytes (T cells or B cells)
    • Plasma cells
  6. Blood precursur cells arise from where in development
    The yolk sac mesoderm at week 3-4
  7. What are the first structures to provide support to the hematopoietic tissues during development
    Liver and Spleen
  8. Bone marrow is considered what type of tissue
    Connective tissue
  9. Where in the bone marrow does blood cell formation occur
    In the medullary cavity of long bones and cavities of cancellous bones
  10. In new borns, what type of bone marrow do they have
    Red only
  11. At around the age of 25 all of the red bone marrow is found where
    Cancellous bone
  12. What are the two parts of bone marrow
    • Stroma
    • Sinusoids
  13. What substances interact with the cell receptors to bind cells to the stroma
    • Laminin
    • Fibronectin
    • Hemonectin
  14. Stroma contains what in it
    Reticular cells, hematopoeitic cells, macrophages, adipose cells, Coll. I, III, fibronectin, lamin, proteoglycans, and hemonectin
  15. What is the importance of reticular cells
    They secrete reticular fibers containing type III coll. as well as cytokines that stimulate development of progenitor cells into blood cells
  16. Reticular cells are what type of cell
  17. Sinusoids are formed by
    sinusoidal capillaries
  18. Where do the RBC's and WBC's leave to enter circulation
    The sinusoidal cavities
  19. The cells that a Erythrocyte cycle into, to fully develop are
    • Proerythroblast
    • Basophilic Erythroblast
    • Polychromatophillic Erythroblast
    • Orthochromatophillic Erythroblast
    • Reticulocyte
    • Erythrocyte
  20. Proerythroblast is a developing erythrocyte in what stage with what distinguishing characteristics
    • 1st stage
    • Visible nucleoli
  21. Basophilic erythroblast is a developing erythrocyte in what stage with what distinguishing characteristics
    • 2nd stage
    • No visible nucleoli
    • Basophilia caused by Polyribosomes
  22. Polychromatophilic erythroblast is a developing erythrocyte in what stage with what distinguishing characteristics
    • 3rd stage
    • Polyribosomes decreased (basophilic)
    • Filled with hemoglobin (acidophilic)
    • Basophilic and acidophilic
  23. Orthochromatophilic is a developing erythrocyte in what stage with what distinguishing characteristics
    • 4th stage
    • Condensing nucleus
    • No basophilic
    • Acidophilic
  24. When does the orthochromatophilic cell become a reticulocyte
    When it expels its nucleus
  25. Nearly all erythrocytes are released into the blood stream from the bone marrow at what point
    As soon as they are formed
  26. Mitosis occurs in what three stages of erythrocyte development
    • The first three
    • Proerythroblasts
    • Basophilic Erythroblasts
    • Polychromaphilic Erythroblasts
  27. When will the developing erythrocyte lose its mitochondria and ribosomes
    Within a day or two of becoming a mature Erythrocyte
  28. Erythrocytes develop in the bone marrow on the surface of what cell
    Nurse cell (macrophage) Which eats the nuclei discarded by the RBC's
  29. The number of RBC's in the blood is regulated by the
    • Kidney, which releases erythropoietin (EPO)
    • It responds to the oxygen level in the blood
  30. Why is Erythropoietin EPO a drug of choice for athletes
    It increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the athlete
  31. EPO works of the surface receptors of what cells to trigger RBC development
    CFU- Erythrocytes
  32. What are old RBC's removed by
    Phagocytes in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
  33. A granulocyte and a non granulocyte are progentitors from the same mother cell, which
    Monocytes and Neutrophils, the mother is a CFU- GM
  34. A myoloblast undergoes what change to form the granulocytes
    • Myeloblast (3-5 nuclei)
    • Promyelocyte (Azurophilic granules appear)
    • Myelocyte (Specific Granules appear)
    • Metamyelocyte (more specific granules appear)
    • Band/Stab
    • Mature Eosinophils, Neutrophils, or Basophils
  35. What granules are made first in the granulocytes
    The non specific Azurophilic granules
  36. When there are a large number of immature cells in the blood, what does this indicate
    That there is a bacterial infection, (a shift to the left)
  37. What is the only white blood cell stored in the bone marrow
    Neutrophils, making it possible for them to proliferate quickly by secreting them into the blood stream from the marrow.
  38. What is Luekemia
    Malignant clones of leukocyte precursurs. This is often manifest by large amounts of immature cells in the blood and a lack of others
  39. What are some of the symptoms of a leukemic patient
    They are usually anemic and prone to infection
  40. What two cells share the same direct progenitor
    Neutrophils and Monocytes
  41. Monocytopoiesis advances how
    • Pluripotent stem cell
    • Myeloid stem cell
    • Neutrophil CFU
    • Monocyte CFU
    • Monocyte
  42. What do platelets arise from
    Fragmentation of Megakaryocytopoiesis
  43. RBC's migrate into the sinusoids by
    A pressure gradient that exists across the wall