Blood

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medstudent2017
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312103
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Blood
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2015-11-26 07:52:58
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Blood
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  1. Lymph has almost the same composition as
    Interstitial fluid
  2. What percent of the blood leaks out and ends up as lympth
    Ten percent
  3. What are the two locations that lympth drains back into the veins
    Left lymphatic duct (Thoracic duct) and right lymphatic duct
  4. The lymphatic system transports
    Infection fighting cells called lymphocytes
  5. What is a secondary job of the lymphatic system
    Transport fats from small intestine to the blood
  6. What are the four primary functions of blood
    • Transport CO2 and O2
    • Stabilize PH
    • Regulate temperature
    • Deliver white blood cells
  7. A blood draw will produce plasma if
    Anti coagulants are added retaining the fibrinogen
  8. Methylene blue has what charge
    Positive charge and is therefore a basic dye
  9. What are some of the negatively charged elements of a cell that stain with an basophilic dye
    DNA, RNA, and specific granules of basophils
  10. Eosin is what type of dye, and turns what structures, what color
    Acidophilic and turns hemoglobin, and specific granules of eosinophils pink
  11. What hormone secreted mainly by the kidneys and liver adjusts the RBC production to meet O2 demand
    Erythropoietin
  12. Anisocytosis means
    The red blood cells are unequal in size, is the cause of many anemias
  13. Red blood cells are about the same size as a
    Normal nuclei of a cell
  14. What is the lifespan of a red blood cell
    120 days
  15. 95% of a red blood cells content is made up of
    Hemoglobin (makes them red)
  16. The RBC membrane has integral membrane proteins with what two families
    • Glycophorins
    • Band 3 proteins
  17. The carbohydrate groups on the glyophorins and band 3 proteins determine
    The blood type of the cell
  18. Band 3 protein transports what
    Ions such as bicarbonate out of the RBC
  19. What is hereditary spherocytosis
    It is when there is a defect in the spectrin or ankyrin of a red blood cell leading to an abnormal shape of the cells making them fragile
  20. What are the clinical effects of anemia
    • Weakness
    • Pallor
    • Breathlessness
    • All due to decrease hemoglobiin
  21. Sickle cell disease is caused by
    A single point mutation in the gene that encodes for Beta chain of hemoglobin A
  22. Clinical manifestations of sickle cell anemia include
    Obstruction of blood vessels, and therefore severe O2 shortage to tissues
  23. White blood cells do not function where
    In the blood, but in tissues
  24. WBC's are a normal component of
    Connective tissue
  25. What are considered the agranulocytes
    Lymphocytes and monocytes
  26. What are some of the substances found in the granules of platelets
    • Factor four which stimulates blood coagulation
    • von Wildebrand factor which promotes adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells
  27. Aggregated platelets secrete what chemicals to stimulate the invasion of fibroblasts from surrounding tissue to form a scar for repair
    • Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)
    • Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF)
  28. What is thrombosis
    Clotting within a blood vessel that may cause infarction of tissue
  29. What white blood cells fall under the category of Granulocytes
    • BEN
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  30. All granulocytes are non-dividing and therefore
    Have a short life span of a few days
  31. What are the most abundant white blood cells
    Neutrophils
  32. What is the characteristic shape and features of a neutrophil
    • They are multi-lobed (3-5) connected by chromatin strands
    • In females the nucleus has a drumstick (contains Barr body)
    • Small Golgi Complex
    • Few mitochondria
  33. What are among some of the first cells to migrate to a bacterial infection
    Neutrophils, they are the main ingredient to pus
  34. Neutrophils phagosize cells that are
    Opsinized
  35. What are the two different granules in Neurtophils
    • Azurophilic (primary)
    • Specific granules (secondary)
  36. What is the lifespan of a neutrophil
    In the blood they have a half life of 6-7 hours, in connective tissue1-4 days
  37. What is a myeloperoxidase
    They are what generate the highly reactive bacterial hypochlorite and chloramines
  38. Azurophilic granules are found in what cells, and perform what function
    All WBC's, they contain lysosomes that generate highly reactive hypochlorite and chloramines
  39. What is the difference in the amount of Neutrophils in an individual at birth and and adult
    High count at birth (9000-30,000), much lower n adults
  40. Until what age are lymphocytes more prevelant then neutrophils
    Age 8
  41. Specific granules in neutrophils are the smallest and contain
    Enzymes and antimicrobic agents like lysozyme and lactoferrin
  42. After a neutrophil undergoes phagocytosis the specific granules
    Fuse first with the phagosome, and then azurophilic granules fuse with the phagosome and forms superoxide and hydrogen peroxide to kill the foreigner
  43. How do neutrophils generate most of their ATP
    Glycolysis, therefore they have very little mitochondria
  44. The neutrophils have the ability to survive in
    Poorly oxygenated regions
  45. One of the unique features of neutrophils during their phagocytosis is
    Their creation of hyperchlorite ions that are similar to bleach. This denatures the proteins and membranes of micro organisms and kills them (Neutropil Oxidative Burst)
  46. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is
    When the phagocytes are not able to kill the organisms consumed because of their lack superoxides
  47. What is a Granuloma
    One of the forms of nodular inflammation in tissue
  48. NETs are
    Neutrophil Extracellular Traps, Neurtophils release nets that breakdown and kills bacteria. They depend on NADPH oxidase. They continue to work after their death.
  49. It has been discovered that NETs kill more
    Then neutrophil phagocytosis
  50. Eosinophils have the physical characteristics of
    • Bilobed nucleus
    • Round with salmon pink colored specific granules
  51. Eosinophils function in the degradation of
    • Parasitic infections
    • Phogocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes
  52. Specific granules of eosinophils are used for
    Killing parasites, they also contain azurophilic granules
  53. Internum is a
    Highly basic protein in eosinophils that "gum up", and denaturing proteins on the plasma membrane of other cells
  54. When there is an increase of Eosinophils in the blood stream there is most likely
    A parasitic infection or an allergic reaction
  55. All of the parasites are what type of cell
    Eukaryotes, therefore antibiotics don't affect them
  56. Parasites are to large for Eosinophils to consume, so their approach for killing them is
    Attach to their surface and extrude the contents of their granules into the extracellular space. They also release the major basic protein to attack them
  57. Why is there a negative charge on the outside of cells
    Because of the negative charge of carbohydrates attached to it
  58. Trichiuruis suis is
    A pig whip worm administered to people with crohns disease to help alleviate the immune system attacking itself
  59. Basophils have the characteristic shape of
    • Round cells
    • S shaped nucleus
    • Lots of granules that are blue or black
    • They have several surface receptors for IgE
  60. The specific granules of basophils contain
    Heparin and Histamine
  61. During infection what cell proliferates dramatically
    Basophils
  62. Basophils are important in what reactions
    • Anaphalactic shock
    • Fever
  63. What do basophils release
    • Histamine
    • Heparin
    • Prostaglandins
    • Leukotrienes
    • Serotonin
    • All increase blood flow to the region of infection
  64. Basophils play an important part in what reactions
    Anaphylactic response
  65. What two white blood cells are the most difficult to tell apart and how do you tell the difference
    • Basophils and Mast cells
    • Basophils are located only in the blood, Mast cells can be found in connective tissue
  66. The second most common white blood cell is
    Lymphocytes
  67. What are the physical characteristics of lymphocytes
    • They are larger then RBC's
    • Slightly Indented large round nucleus
    • Round cell
    • No specific granules
  68. What are the three functional categories of lymphocytes
    • B cells
    • T cells
    • Null Cells (natural killers)
  69. What is the lifespan of a Lymphocyte
    From a few days to years
  70. Lymphocytes are devoid of
    Specific granules
  71. Lymphocytes are the only type of leukocyte that
    Returns from tissues back to the blood
  72. What are the largest of the circulating blood cells
    Monocytes
  73. Monocytes are characteristically
    • Very large
    • Kidney shaped nucleus
    • White patches
    • No specific granules
  74. Monocytes destroy cells via
    • Phagocytosis
    • Important in immune response in that they eat antigens and foreign particles
  75. What are the precursur cells to macrophages
    Monocytes
  76. What is the job of platelets
    To prevent excessive internal or external bleeding after injury
  77. What do platelets contain
    • Mitochondria
    • Lysosomes
    • ER
    • Golgi
    • Extensive Cytoskeleton
    • Three types of granules
    • No nucleus
  78. What role do actin and myosin have in blood clotting
    They make the clot smaller after it forms to prevent clogging of the vessel
  79. What are considered the fixed cells
    • Macrophages
    • Mast cells
    • Adipose
    • Pericytes
    • Fibroblasts
  80. What are considered the Transient cells
    • Plasma
    • Lymphocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • Basophils
    • Monocytes
    • Macrophages
    • Eosinophils

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