Muscular Tissue

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medstudent2017
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312106
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Muscular Tissue
Updated:
2015-11-26 07:54:17
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Muscular Tissue
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  1. The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is also called
    Sarcoplasm
  2. A muscle fiber membrane is also called
    sarcolemma
  3. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum of muscle fiber is also called
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  4. Mitochondria in the muscle cell can be called
    Sarcosomes
  5. Almost all the muscles are dervied from
    Mesoderm
  6. What is the one muscle exeption not having its derivative from mesoderm
    Dilator Pupillae m. (comes from neuroectoderm)
  7. Voluntary motion is innervated by
    Somatic motor neurons
  8. Syncytium is
    The fusion of many small cells, containing hundreds of nuclei within one cell or fiber
  9. In muscle the syncycium is the fusion of many precursur cells called
    Myoblasts
  10. The strength of a cell fiber depends on its
    Diameter
  11. What substances are found in abundance in muscle cells
    • Contractile proteins
    • Mitochondria (energy)
    • Glycogen (glucose)
    • Myoglobin (oxygen)
  12. Each muscle cell is surrounded by
    External Lamina
  13. Satelilite cells are found where in the muscle and perform what function
    They are muscle precursur cells and can be found in the basal lamina beneath the external lamina
  14. What are the three types of muscle fibers
    • Red
    • White
    • Intermediate
  15. What are the qualities of the red muscle
    They are slow to react, but have stamina, they are small in diameter and have a lot of myoglobin (why its red) and mitochondria, they use Oxidative phosphorilation
  16. What are the qualitites of white muscle
    They are fast but easily fatigued, have a large diameter, poor in myoglobin (why it is white), little mitochondria, use Glycolysis and Creatine Phosphate
  17. What are the qualities of intermediate muscle
    It is simply a mixture of the other two in differing amounts of each type
  18. What is the structure of a muscle from the largest unit to the smallest
    • Muscle
    • Fascicle
    • Fibers (muscle cell)
    • Myofibrils
    • Myofilaments (Actin and myosin)
  19. Myofilaments contain
    Contractile proteins (actin and myosin)
  20. The coverings of muscle are
    • Epimysium (around muscle)
    • Perimysium (around bundle)
    • Endomysium (around muscle fiber)
  21. Epimysium is made up of
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  22. Perimysium which covers a bundle is made up of
    Connective tissue
  23. Endomysium which covers muscle fibers is made up of
    Loose connective tissue
  24. The contractile element of muscle is
    Myofibrils
  25. Myofibrils are made up of
    Myosin (thick) and Actin (thin) filaments
  26. What creates the striations in muscle
    Alternating zones of thick and thin filaments
  27. Desmin does what
    It holds the myofibrils in register with each other
  28. The thin filament is made up of
    F-actin, a polymer formed from globular actin molecules (G-actin)
  29. The thick filament is made up of
    200-300 myosin II molecules aggregated in a parallel but staggered array.
  30. Nebulin is
    Facilitates the attachment of the thin (actin) filament to the Z line
  31. Tiltin is
    What attaches the thick filament (myosin) to the Z line. It also prevents over stretching
  32. Tropomyosin
    Along with troponins, mask the myosin binding site on the actin molecule.
  33. During contraction, Ca++ binds to the
    Troponin C (TnC), and tropomyosin shifts exposing the myosin binding sties
  34. Where is the positive end of the sarcomere
    It is located at the Z line, the negative end is at the apex of the actin
  35. What are the accessory proteins that maintain precise alignment of the thick and thin filaments
    • Nebulin
    • Titin
    • C protein (both sides of myomesin)
    • myomesin (make m line)
    • alpha actinin (make the z line)
  36. Papain is a meat softner that
    Breaks the myosin head off
  37. C protein and Myomesin are
    Myosin binding proteins
  38. What make up the Z line
    Alpha actin, an actin binding protein
  39. Creatine Kinase is
    Present at the M-Line and helps provide the supply of ATP from ADP
  40. Dystrophin
    Connects the thin filament (actin) to the cell membrane allowing the force generated to get beyond just the filament
  41. What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and terminal cisterna do?
    They store the Ca ions
  42. The triad is located at
    The A-I junction
  43. The T tubules
    Connecting tubes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and Terminal Cisterna (all are connected)
  44. Muscle to nerve junctions are called
    Myoneural junctions
  45. A large motor unit moves
    In a big group but doesn't provide fine movements
  46. A small motor unit
    Does precise work in small bundles
  47. A schwann cell on a neuromuscular junction will only
    Cover the neuron with one layer
  48. During contraction thin filaments
    Slide toward the M band
  49. During contraction the lengths of the individual myofilaments
    Do not change, but the Z lines are brought closer together
  50. The different bands do what during contraction
    • The M and A bands remain the same length
    • The I and H bands diminish in length
  51. Without ATP a muscle would
    Stay contracted
  52. The sarcoplasmic reticulum has what functions
    It stores Ca, and has voltage gated Ca release channels
  53. Each Triad contains
    Two cisternae and one T tubule
  54. What provides additional surface area at the synaptic cleft
    Junctional folds
  55. The regeneration of muscles can happen if
    The external lamina and satellite cells are intact
  56. What is Huxleys theory
    During contraction, the lengths of the individual myofilaments don't change, but the Z lines are drawn closer together
  57. What causes rigor mortis
    The lack of ATP, keeping the muscles contracted
  58. Botulism
    Toxin produced from Clostridium Botulinum and interferes with the release of acetylcholine leading to muscle paralysis. This happens rapidly
  59. Mysthenia Gravis
    Autoimmune disease, characterized by muscle weakness. Autoantibodies attach to acetylcholline receptors. This takes time to take effect
  60. Muscle spindles function when
    The muscle is stretched, they are sensory receptors, located near the tendon
  61. Intrafusal muscle fibers are skeletal muscle fibers that
    Make up the muscle spindle and detect the rate and change in length of muscle. They give us a sense of where our muscles are. These are considered the modified group
  62. Extrafusal muscle fibers are considered
    The regular type
  63. What is the receptor in muscle that the action potentional triggers
    DiHydroPyridine
  64. DHP tugs at what, releasing Calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    Ryandine receptor
  65. How does calcium in the sarcomere create a contraction of muscle
    It binds to the troponin C opening the actin binding site for myosine to contract the muscle
  66. How is myosin cocked for contraction
    ATP binds to it, putting it into a ready state
  67. What is troponin made up of
    It has an actin binding unit, a calcium binding unit, and an tropomyosin binding unit.
  68. What is a crossbridge
    It is the myosin head
  69. What energizes the cross bridge
    Hydrolysis of ATP
  70. The A band is specifically the
    Thick filament or myosin
  71. The movement of Ca+ back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum is done by
    The primary active transport of ATPase SERCA pump
  72. Each myosin molecule has how many heads
    Two
  73. The A band contains
    The section where the myosin and actin overlap
  74. Troponin is a regulatory protein that permits
    The binding of the myosin to actin when Ca is present
  75. What is the difference between the troponin C, T and I
    • C is where the calcium attaches
    • T is where the the troponin attaches to the tropmyosin
    • I is where the inhibition of actin and myosin happens
  76. Tetanic contraction (tetany) is when
    An isometric contraction is produced by multiple stimuli
  77. The DHP (DihydroPyridine) receptor is found where
    In the T tubule where it receives the action potential
  78. What part of the SR contacts the T tubule
    The terminal cisternae
  79. Where is the Ryandine receptor located
    On the surface of the SR
  80. What is an Isometric contraction compared to an isotonic contraction
    • Isometric creates force but no movement (like holding an apple)
    • Isotonic either shortens or extends the muscle
  81. Concentric does what as opposed to Eccentric
    • Concentric, Muscle shortens, (Flexes)
    • Eccentric, Muscle lengthens, (Extends)
  82. A single action potential theoretically causes a
    Twitch
  83. Multiple twitches add up to a
    Isometric contraction
  84. Passive tension is caused from
    Stretching
  85. A muscle unit consist of
    Muscle fibers of only one type
  86. One motor neuron can trigger
    Many muscle fibers of only one fiber type
  87. If you have a slow twitch on a muscle you know that it is
    A slow twitch oxidative fiber (Red)
  88. If you have a fast twitch what fiber type could it be
    • Fast twitch Oxidative-Glycolitic Fiber (Intermediate)
    • Fast twitch Glycolitic fiber (White)
  89. W fast twitch muscle uses what for ATP production
    • Creatine phosphate
    • Glycolysis
  90. A slow twitch Oxidative fiber uses what for energy
    Oxidative Phosphorilation
  91. All Oxidative Phosphorilation muscles are high in
    Myoglobin (Red fibers)
  92. What factors determine the ability of a muscle to create strong tension
    • AP frequency
    • Fiber length
    • FIber diameter
    • Amount of fibers
  93. In what order are the motor fibers recruited
    • Slow Ox (smallest)
    • Fast Ox-Gly (medium)
    • Fast Gly (large)

    Red-Intermediate-White
  94. What are the three ways documented that muscle fatigues
    • Conduction failure at T tubule (High K+ or Na +)
    • Cross bridge cycle inhibition (High ADP and Pi)
    • Increase acidity
    • Glycogen depletion
  95. What are the three ways to create ATP for muscle
    • Creatine Phosphate (fast 1 ATP)
    • Glycolysis (intermediate 2 ATP)
    • Oxidative phosphorilation (slow 32 ATP)

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