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2015-11-26 08:07:26

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  1. What four atoms make up 90% of all atoms in a living organism
    • H 63%
    • O 25%
    • C 9.5%
    • N 1.5%
  2. What amino acid has the capacity to buffer blood in the physiological range
  3. Biological micromolecules
    Nucleotide, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids
  4. Biological macromolecules
    Nucleic Acids, proteins, polysaccharides, membranes
  5. Amino acids are a precusor to
    Proteins, peptide hormones, neurotransmitters, and alkaloids
  6. Hydrogen bonding
    Occurs between hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom. Usually nitrogen oxygen and flourine
  7. Ionic bonds
    Electrostatic interactions between permanently charged residues
  8. Vander waal reactions
    Based on induced assymetric distribution of electrons
  9. Hydrophobic interactions
    Non polar groups are shielded from water
  10. Isomers
    Different compounds with the same molecular formula
  11. Stereoisomers
    Differ only in the way the are oriented (have identical names except for cis/trans)
  12. What are the four different types on stereoisomers
    • Enantiomers
    • Diastereomers
    • Geometric Isomers (cis trans)
    • Conformational Isomers
  13. How do cellulose and starch differ in structure
    • Cellulose has two equatorial
    • Starch one equatorial one axial
  14. Chiral
    • Mirror image that doesn't superimpose (hands)
    • Has four different atoms at chiral center
  15. Achiral
    Superimposable mirror images
  16. Enantiomers
    • Non-superimposable mirror image but have identical meltin point, boiling point, and refractive index
    • Counterparts interact different with other chiral molecules
  17. Equimolar mixture
    Equal Mixture of two enantiomers and is optically inactive
  18. Define a buffer
    Has the ability to resist changes of pH with addition of small amounts of acid or base consisting of a weak acid or base with its salt
  19. Carbonic acid is the primary blood plasma buffer keeping the blood at
  20. Carbohydrate formula
  21. Monosaccharide
    Carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed simpler
  22. Oligosaccharide
    Carbs whose hydrolysis yields 2-20 monosaccharides
  23. Disaccharides
    Carbs that can be hydrolyzed to 2 monosaccharides
  24. Polysaccharides
    Carbs whose hydrolysis yeilds 20+ monosaccharides (also called glycans)
  25. Carbohydrates chemical characteristics
    • Water soluble
    • No ionizable groups
    • Several potentially reactive groups
    • Can be oxidized or undrgo condensation
    • Biochemical energy is huge
  26. Monosaccharide configuration (whether it is D or L) is determined by
    • The chiral C atom furthest from the carbonyl C when in a Fischer projection with C=O on the right
    • OH on right = D, L on the left
  27. All biologically relevant monosaccharides are
    D sugars
  28. Hoffs rule
    • 2n = # stereoisomers
    • n = # of stereocenters
  29. Define isomerization
    One molecule is transformed to another with the same atoms but different arrangement (A-B-C → B-A-C)
  30. What is the biological importance of chirality
    The binding specificity of a chiral receptor site for a chiral molecule is usually only favorable one way
  31. Why do drugs that are enantiomers have to be produced at such a high purity
    The enantiomer could be a taratogen, or other harmful drug
  32. Define aldose
    An aldose is a monosaccharide containing one aldehyde group per molecule.
  33. Define a Ketose
    A ketose is a sugar containing one keton per molecule
  34. Define a triose
    A monosaccharide containing three carbonsDihydroxyacetone.png
  35. Define a Pentose
    A monosacharide containing five carbonsXylose linear.png
  36. Define Hemiacetal
    A compound derived from an aldehyde
  37. Define hemiaketal
    A compound derived from a ketone
  38. Define a glycosidic bond
    A type of covalent bond that binds a carbohydrate group by the anomeric carbon to another molecule
  39. Define an epimer
    is an optical isomer that differs from one another in configuration by one chiral carbon
  40. Define Anomer
    • One of a pair of cyclic stereoisomers (designated α or β) of a sugar or glycoside, differing only in configuration at the reducing carbon atom
    • Beta-D-glucopyranose-2D-skeletal.pngAlpha-D-glucopyranose-2D-skeletal.png
  41. Define carbonyl carbon
    A carbon attached to a double bonded oxygen
  42. Mutarotation is
    • Change of optical rotation as an equilibrium of alpha/beta form of a mixture forms
    • Equilibrium does not mean 50/50, more stable one is found predominating
  43. Benedicts test and Tollens test are used to test for
    Reducing sugars
  44. Tollens test displays what on when positive
    A silver mirror
  45. Benedict's test displays what on a positive test
    A red brick participate
  46. What carbs won't react with a Tollens or Benedict test
    • Those with acetal groups (glycosidic linkages)
    • When OH is no longer on the anomeric C
  47. Reactions with what sugars give a positive Tollens and Benedicts test
    Ketose and Aldoses
  48. What is starch
    Storage form of sugar in plants
  49. Glycogen is the major what for animals
    Storage carbohydrate in animals (Ready energy).
  50. Where is the glycogen stored
    In the liver and muscles.
  51. What is cellulose, how is it found in plants
    • Glucose units joined by beta glycosidic bonds
    • Found in cell walls of plants providing the rigid structure resulting from sheets stacked on each other
  52. Humans can't use cellulose as a source of glucose why
    We lack the enzyme to cleave beta linkages in cellulose
  53. Fatty acids are stored primarily
    In adipocytes ( foound often in abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue) as a triglyceride
  54. Triaclyglycerol (TAG) has an important as
    Energy reserve in animals providing twice the energy of carbohydrates
  55. In respect to energy storage, whats the primary difference between carbohydrates and Fats
    Fats are a form of long term storage, carbohydrates rapid release
  56. Lipid can be the result of spoilage of foods due to
    Their ability to be catalyzed by oxygen called lipid peroxidation