Thorax

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Author:
alison.cygan
ID:
312210
Filename:
Thorax
Updated:
2015-11-29 23:23:49
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thorax
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Description:
Thoracic region
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  1. "True Ribs"?
    Ribs 1-7
  2. "False Ribs"?
    Ribs 8-10
  3. "Floating Ribs"?
    Ribs 11-12
  4. How do the vessels run under the ribs superiorly to inferiorly?
    • Vein
    • Artery
    • Nerve
  5. Sternum Landmarks:
    Manubrium
    Level of T3-T4 vertebral bodies
  6. Sternum Landmarks:
    Suprasternal notch
    Level of the inferior border of T2 vertebral body
  7. Sternum Landmarks:
    Sternal Angle
    Level of disc between T4 & T5
  8. Sternum Landmarks:
    Body
    Between T5-T9 vertebral bodies
  9. Sternum Landmarks:
    Xiphoid process
    Level of T10 vertebral body
  10. Sternum Landmarks:
    Xiphisternal joint
    Inferior Border of T9
  11. Type of movement for elevation of the ribs in respiration?
    "Bucket Handle" movement
  12. Type of movement for elevation of sternum in respiration?
    "Pump handle" movement
  13. Boundaries of thoracic aperture? (3)
    • 1st thoracic vertebra
    • 1st pair of ribs
    • Superior border manubrium
  14. Structures passing through superior thoracic aperture? (4)
    • Trachea
    • Esophagus
    • Nerves
    • Vessels
  15. What closes the inferior thoracic aperture?
    Diaphragm
  16. Structures passing through inferior thoracic aperture? (3)
    • Esophagus
    • Inferior Vena Cava
    • Aorta
  17. Boundaries of inferior thoracic aperture? (4)
    • 12th thoracic vertebra
    • 11th & 12th ribs
    • Costal cartilages of ribs 7-10
    • Xiphisternal joint
  18. Intercostal muscles for quiet breathing? (3)
    • External intercostals
    • Internal intercostals
    • Innermost intercostals
  19. Action of the subcostal muscles?
    Elevate ribs
  20. Transversus thoracis muscles perform which actions on ribs?
    • Weak depression
    • *Proprioception
  21. Ventral rami T1-T11?
    Intercostal Nn.
  22. Ventral rami T12?
    Subcostal N.
  23. The Azygos System drains which side of the body's venous blood?
    RIGHT
  24. Blood draining from the LEFT side of the body enters which vein?
    Hemiazygos V.
  25. Where does the Azygos V. empty?
    Superior Vena Cava
  26. 3 compartments of the thoracic cavity?
    • (2) Pulmonary cavities - contain lungs & pleurae
    • (1) Mediastinum cavity - contains all other thoracic structures
  27. T/F: The Visceral Pleura has sensory nerve fibers?
    FALSE: NO sensory nerve fibers
  28. T/F: The Parietal Pleura contains sensory nerve fibers?
    TRUE
  29. What is the point of entry into the lungs?
    Hilum
  30. How many lobes are in the (R) lung?
    3
  31. How many lobes are in the (L) lung? Why?
    2 b/c of heart occupying more space on (L) side
  32. In the (R) lung, which fissure separates the middle & inferior lobes?
    Oblique fissure
  33. In the (R) lung, which fissure separates the middle & superior lobes?
    Horizontal fissure
  34. The pulmonary arteries carry what type of blood to the lungs?
    Deoxygenated
  35. The pulmonary veins carry what type of blood to the heart?
    Oxygenated
  36. Which artery carries nutrients and oxygen to the lung tissue? Which vein drains lung tissue?
    Bronchial A. & V.
  37. At what level does the Trachea split into the (R) & (L) Main Bronchi?
    Sternal angle
  38. Which main bronchus is more prone to pneumonia? Why?
    RIGHT; more vertical
  39. Parasympathetic innervation of thoracic cavity?
    • Vagus N. (CN X)
    • (Craniosacral)
  40. Sympathetic innervation to thoracic cavity?
    • Sympathetic trunks
    • (Thoracolumbar)
  41. Bronchoconstriction & vasodilation occurs with which system?
    Parasympathetic
  42. Bronchodilation & vasoconstriction occurs with which system?
    Sympathetic/"Fight-or-Flight"
  43. What type of CT is the fibrous pericardium?
    Dense Fibrous CT
  44. Function of fibrous pericardium?
    Resists sudden overfilling of heart
  45. What is the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium?
    Parietal layer of serous pericardium
  46. Outer layer parietal pericardium?
    Visceral layer of serous pericardium
  47. Sensory innervation to pericardium?
    Phrenic N.
  48. 3 layers of the heart from inside to outside?
    • Endocardium
    • Myocardium
    • Epicardium
  49. Location of heart?
    • Between ribs 3-5 posterior to sternum
    • 2/3 to (L) of midline; 1/3 to (R) of midline
  50. Apex of heart?
    Inferolateral part of (L) ventricle lies posterior to (L) 5th intercostal space
  51. Base of heart primarily composed of which atrium?
    LEFT
  52. Which atrium faces posteriorly toward the vertebral bodies T6-T9?
    RIGHT
  53. The (R) atrium receives venous blood from? (3)
    • Superior Vena Cava
    • Inferior Vena Cava
    • Coronary Sinus
  54. Smooth posterior part of (R) atrium?
    Sinus Venarum
  55. Rough anterior part of (R) atrium?
    Pectinate muscles
  56. Separates ant/post walls of (R) atrium?
    Christa Terminalis
  57. Interatrial wall of (R) atrium contains this structure as remnants of the fetal Foramen Ovale?
    Fossa Ovalis
  58. Muscular elevations of inner wall of (R) & (L) ventricles?
    Trabeculae Carnae
  59. Valve between (R) atrium & ventricle?
    Tricuspid valve
  60. "String-like" attachments to tricuspid valve?
    Chordae Tendineae
  61. Which muscles attach the chordae tendineae from each cusp to the ventricle wall?
    Papillary muscles
  62. "Moderator band" of the (R) ventricle?
    Septomarginal Trabecula
  63. Which valve is between the pulmonary trunk and (R) ventricle?
    Pulmonary Valve @ level of 3rd costal cartilage
  64. (L) atrium receives oxygenated blood from where?
    4 pulmonary veins from lungs
  65. Valve between (L) atrium & ventricle?
    Mitral valve (2 cusps)
  66. Why is the (L) ventricle 2x thicker than the (R)?
    B/C it has to pump blood to the rest of the body.
  67. Valve between the (L) ventricle & ascending aorta?
    Aortic valve
  68. 1st branches of the ascending aorta that supply the myocardium & epicardium?
    (R) & (L) Coronary Aa.
  69. The (R) Coronary A. supplies what? (6)
    • (R) atrium
    • Most of (R) ventricle
    • Diaphragmatic surface of (L) ventricle
    • Posterior 1/3 Interventricular (IV) septum
    • SA node (in 60% of people)
    • AV node (in 80% of people)
  70. The (L) Coronary A. supplies what? (5)
    • (L) atrium
    • Most of (L) ventricle
    • Part of (R) ventricle
    • Most of IV septum/AV bundle
    • SA node (in 40% of people)
  71. Where does the venous blood drain out of the heart?
    Coronary Sinus
  72. "Pacemaker" located at junction of SVC & (R) atrium?
    SA node
  73. Located at posteroinferior region of interatrial septum & distributes signal from SA node to ventricles via AV bundle?
    AV node
  74. Bridge between atrial & ventricular myocardium/(R) & (L) bundles?
    AV bundle
  75. T/F: Sympathetic innervation of heart increases HR & force of contraction?
    TRUE
  76. T/F: Parasympathetic innervation of the heart is by the Vagus N, decreases HR/force of contraction and constricts the Coronary Aa?
    TRUE

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