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The study of all aspects of host defense against infection and of adverse consequences of immune responses.
Immune Response (IR)
The response made by the host to defend itself against a pathogen.
2 types of immune responses:
- 1)Innate/non-specific immunity
Innate Immunity has what 4 characteristics?
1)Born with 2)Non-specific 3)Acts Immediately 4)Does not improve after exposure to the pathogen
What are 4 characteristics of adaptive immune response?
- 1)Requires prior exposure or time to develop
- 2)Specific for one pathogen or molecule; has specific antigen receptors that activate lymphocytes
- 3)More versatile response to a large number of different organisms
- 4)Life long immunity to a specific agent
Secreted proteins that regulate other cells (Ex: monokine, lymphokine, interleukins)
Any molecule that stimulates an IR or bind to the products of an IR.
Enzyme that digest the cell wall of bacteria.
Microorganisms that grow in/on the body w/o causing harm.
WBC's that ingest large particles
Significant to innate defense w/ signs of heat, redness, swelling, pain
What are the 3 types of innate defenses?
Mechanical, Chemical, Microbiological
Inflammatory Cytokines causes what 4 things to happen?
- 1)Activate endothelium
- 2)Activate WBC's
- 4)Acute phase proteins
What are the 5 places of in/on the body defenses?
- GI tract
- Respiratory tract
- Urogenital tract
Flow of fluid, perspiration, sloughing off of skin
Flow of fluid, mucus, food, and saliva
Flow of fluid and mucus, e.g., by cilia air flow
Flow of cluid, urin, mucus, sperm
Flow of fluid, tears
Sebum (fatty acids, lactic acid, lysozyme)
Acidity, enzymes (proteases)
Lysozyme in nasal secrections
Lysozyme in tears
Normal flora of the skin
Normal flora of the GI tract
Normal flora of the respiratory tract
Normal flora of the urogenital tract
Normal flora of the eyes