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- No known cause-associated risk factors
- family history
- high sodium intake
- excessive calorie intake
- physical inactivity
- Renal disease
- adrenal disease
- coarctation of aorta-narrowing
- brain tumors
More musculature -tunica media intima
relay on skeletal muscle to return blood.
stage 2 hypertension
- increased renal, peripheral, coronary and cerebral
- formation of plaque in artery wall
- Step 1: Damage to the vessel wall.
- Step 2: Vessel becomes inflamed.
- Step 3: Fatty streak appears.
- Step 4: Plaque develops.
- Step 5: Fibrous lesion becomes calcified, hemorrhagic,ulcerated, or thrombosed
S-D pressure 30-40 is normal
dependent rubor and intermittent claudication
decrease risk of PVD
- reduce sodium intake
- weight reduction
- cessation of smoking and limit drinking
- caffeine reduction
- Endothelial injury
- prolonged inactivity
- surgery to a limb
- Oral contraceptives
Caused by nerve damage, loss of sensation, reduced blood flow.
S&S of diabetic ulcers
- unsteady gait
- injury without pain
Arteriole ulcers S&S
Between toes, deeper, inadequate O2 and nutrient supply to deep tissue leading to ulcer.
prolonged venous hypertension, edema leading to stasis ulcers, cellulitis and stasis dermatitis.
75% in pediatrics
- Acute systemic vasculitis
- Edema & Erythema
- strawberry tongue
Kawasaki disease treatments in peds
leading cause of heart disease in children-treatment involves-Prevention of coronary artery disease intravenous immunoglobulin is the main treatment second line is corticosteroids
Reyes syndrome in PED
- Early S&S-Diarrhea and rapid breathing, confusion, weakness.
- causes confusion, brain swelling and liver damage high incidence of occurrence in pediatrics due to ASA Age limit 2 years but children and teenagers shouldn't take ASA.