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- High sodium intake
- family history
- excessive calorie intake
- physical inactivity
- renal disease
- adrenal disease
- coarctation of aorta-narrowing
are more muscular-tunica intima and media
dilate more easily-dependent on skeletal muscle for blood return.
Stage 2 hypertension?
- formation of plaque within the arteries
- Step 1: Damage to the vessel wall.
- Step 2: Vessel becomes inflamed.
- Step 3: Fatty streak appears.
- Step 4: Plaque develops.
- Step 5: Fibrous lesion becomes calcified, hemorrhagic, ulcerated, or thrombosed.
- venous stasis
- endothelial damage
risk factors for atherosclerosis
- Age greater than 60 years old
- Family history of HTN
- Excessive calorie consumption
- Physical inactivity
- Excessive alcohol intake
- High salt & caffeine intake
- Decreased intake of K+, Ca++, Mg++
S-D normal is 30-40mmhg
- Deep, usually between toes, blackish intermittent claudication
- ulcers created due to a lack of 02 and nutriets. Atherosclerosis predisposes pt. to this.
Venous ulcers aka stasis leg ulcer
Shallow-weeping wounds that are poor to heal-poor venous return of blood flow.
Types of PVD
- varicose veins
- stasis dermatitis
- venous stasis ulcers
- prolonged periods of inactivity
- surgery to a limbg
- oral contraceptives
- Venous Insufficiency
- ◦Prolonged venous hypertension◦
- Stretch veins◦
- Damage valves◦
- Waste products build up in tissues
- Results in different types of diseases-thrombosis, varicose veins, ulcers, stasis dermatitis
Diabetic peripheral disease
- Nerve damage
- Loss of sensation
- reduced blood flow
- Uncontrolled blood sugar
- Vitamin deficiencies
- sedentary life style
- S&S-neuropathy-inability to recognize objects by feel, injury without pain, paresthesia
PVD for pediatrics
Same risk factors as adult PVD primary and secondary. and same lifestyle changes to treat PVD
75% occur in children
- Acute systemic vasculitis
- strawberry tongue
- hydrocephalus, liver damage, renal damage
- Unknown, but higher incidence due to ASA use in pediatrics. Pediatrics should not receive ASA along with teenagers.
- Main treatment is prevention of MI/CAD. Primary treatment is Intravenous Immunoglobulin
- secondary is corticosteroids
- ASA may be considered, but will be placed under close observation for reyes