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According to Pfeffer's research, successful companies employed all of these people-centered practices:
- Job security
- Careful hiring
- Power to the people
- Generous pay for performance
- Lots of training
- Less emphasis on status
- Trust building
The 4-P cycle of continuous improvement included all of these:
Which of these is a productivity component in the 4-P cycle of continuous improvement?
- Reduced waste
- Reduced rework
- More efficient use of material, financial, and info resources
In today's workplace, _______ are becoming the primary building block of organizations.
Which of these is a Theory Y assumption about people at work?
- Capable of self-direction & self control
- Committed to org objectives
- Can learn to accept and seek responsibility
- Has imagination, ingenuity & creativity
Organizational _______ is the set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.
The three fundamental layers of organizational culture are:
- Observable Artifacts
- Espoused Values
- Basic Assumptions
Refers to the enduring belief in a mode of conduct or end-stage:
Represents the core of organizational culture:
_______ represents an individual's thoughts and beliefs about expected behavior and modes of conduct.
Societal culture is shaped by all these environmental factors:
- Economic/technological setting
- Political/legal setting
- Ethnic background
To improve quality, American workers are interested in
Making small step-by-step improvements
Belief that one's native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior to all others refers to
Hofstede's uncertainty avoidance dimension measures which of these?
How much should people rely on social norms and rules to avoid uncertainty and limit unpredictability
How confrontational and dominant should individuals be in social relationships refer to which dimension of GLOBE project?
______ is a cognitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings.
Which of these represent the first stage of the social information processing model?
_______ is the process of becoming consciously aware of something or someone.
Which of these is not a form of self-expression?
A person's self-perception as a physical, social, and spiritual being refers to
Which of these is a belief about one's own self-worth based on an overall self-evaluation?
The correlation, according to research, between self-esteem and life satisfaction was stronger in _______ cultures.
Observing one's own behavior and adapting it to the situation refers to
When you consciously control the learning process yourself, you are engaging in self-
Covey's seven habits of highly effective people:
- 1. Be productive
- 2. Begin with end in mind
- 3. Put first things first
- 4. Think win-win
- 5. Seek to understand and then to be understood
- 6. Synergize
- 7. Sharpen the saw
_______ are physiological and psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.
In 1943, psychologist _______ published his now-famous need hierarchy theory motivation.
Five basic needs identified by Maslow:
Key managerial implication of Maslow's theory:
- 1. Managers should focus on satisfying employee needs related to self-concepts (self-esteem and self-actualization)
- 2. A satisfied need may lose its motivational potential
According to Maslow's need hierarchy, which is the highest order need?
Which theory holds that motivation is a function of fairness in social exchanges?
According to Adams, two primary components in the employee-employer exchange are
Inputs and outcomes
_______ justice is defined as the perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions.
Practical lessons from equity theory:
- Managers need to pay attention to employees' perceptions of what is fair and equitable.
- Managers benefit by allowing employees to participate in making decisions about important work outcomes.
- Employees should be given the opportunity to appeal decisions that affect their welfare.
- Managers can promote cooperation and teamwork among group members by treating them equitably.
- Employees' perceptions of justice are strongly influenced by the leadership behavior exhibited by their managers
- Managers need to pay attention to the orgs climate for justice.
Which theory holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes?
Feedback serves two functions from those who receive it: __________ and __________.
Instructional and motivational
Generally, people tend to perceive and recall ______ feedback more accurately than they do ________ feedback.
Positive and negative
Self-efficacy can be damaged by ________ feedback.
Comparison of anonymous feed back from one's supervisor, subordinates, and peers with self-perceptions is known as _______ feedback.
________ refers to identifying and choosing solutions that lead to a desired end result.
The first step in a rational model of decision making is to
Identify the problem
Which model attempts to identify the process that managers actually use when making decisions?
Simons normative model
Which of these represents rules of thumb or short cuts that people use to reduce information processing demands?
Choosing a solution that meets a minimum standard of acceptance refers to...
_______ is the process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.
Who recognized the inevitability of conflict and advised managers to learn to live with it?
Human relation theorist
Which person believed that all conflict ultimately threatened management's authority and thus had to be avoided or quickly resolved?
Frederick W. Taylor
When conflict supports the goals of an organization and improves performance it is referred to as a(n) _________ conflict.
When a conflict hinders an organization's performance, it is referred to as a(n) ________ conflict.
________ is defined as the exchange of information between a sender and a receiver, and the inference of meaning between the individuals involved.
Communication is a(n)
Alexi wants to inform everyone in her company that expense reimbursement policy for travel has been significantly modified. Alexi would be considered which of these?
Which of these translates mental thoughts into a code or language that can be understood by others?
The output of encoding is a
Which of these influence tactics is the most widely used in the workplace?
Which of these influence tactics is the least used in the workplace?
Which of these influence tactics is referred to as a "soft" tactic?
Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, consultation, ingratiation, and personal appeal
According to researchers, the three possible influence outcomes are:
Commitment, compliance, and resistance
A belief that people should be paid back for their positive and negative acts refers to which of these?
The common thread among the different definitions of leadership is
Leadership is a social influence process in which the leader seeks _________ participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational goals.
A personal characteristic that differentiates leaders from followers is called a
According to research on managers from European countries, which of these is true?
- 1. Intelligence
- 2. Dominance
- 3. Self-confidence
- 4. Level of energy and activity
- 5. Task-relevant knowledge
According to research which of these is false about gender and leadership?
- 1. Men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively
- 2. Women used more democratic style and men used autocratic style
- 3. Men and women were equally assertive
- 4. Women scored higher on a variety of effectiveness criteria
According to Banard, a(n) _________ is a system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more people.
Common denominators of all organizations:
- Coordination of effort
- Common goal
- Division of labor
- Hierarchy of authority
_______ occurs when the common goal is pursued by individuals performing separate but related tasks.
Division of labor
Historically, managers have maintained the integrity of the hierarchy of authority by adhering to the
Unity of command principle
Which of these is a graphic representation of form authority and division of labor relationships?
External forces for change:
- Demographic characteristics
- Technological advancements
- Customer and market changes
- Social and political pressures
The next wave of 80 million people entering the workforce over the next 20 years are dubbed the
Managers can begin the _______ process by disconfirming the usefulness or appropriateness of employees' present behavior or attitudes.
The three stages in Lewin's change model are
Unfreezing, change, and freezing
The focus of which stage in Lewin's change model is to create the motivation to change?
The three main components of a systems model are
Inputs, strategic plans, and target elements of change
A systems approach takes a(n) ________ perspective of organizational change.
A mission statement represents
The "reason" an organization exists
An organization's vision describes
A long term goal that describes "what" an organization wants to become
According to the systems model of change, change can be directed at realigning all of these except
Inputs, strategic plans, target elements of change, and outputs
Target elements of change represent the components of a(n) _________ that may be changed.
A(n) _________ is one that proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge throughout the organization.
Which of these represents the internal structure and processes that affect how easy or hard it is for learning to occur and the amount of effective learning that takes place?
________ one of factors that facilitate organizational learning capabilities, reflects accessibility of information and opportunities to observe others.
Climate of openness
In which of these dominant modes of learning, does learning occur through systematic gathering of internal and external information?
Regarding the human side of quality improvement, Deming called for all of those except:
1. Formal training in teamwork 2. Helpful leadership 3. Elimination of fear so employees wont be scared to ask questions 4. Emphasis on continuous process improvement5. teamwork 6. Elimination of barriers to good workmanship
Deming believed that when thing go wrong, about what percent of the time is the individual employee at fault?
Which of these is not identified as a common TQM principle?
1. Do it right the first time to eliminate costly work 2. Listen to learn from customers and employees 3. Make continuous improvement on everyday matter 4. Build teamwork, trust, and mutual respect
Which approach calls for using management concepts and techniques in a situational appropriate manner?
All of these are new directions for OB except:
Human and social capital, positive organizational behavior, and the e-business implications
Which of these refers to using the Internet to facilitate every aspect of running a business?
Virtual workplace with less face-to-face interaction requires managers and employees who are:
Flexible and adaptable
_________ and _________ are unavoidable by-products of strategic and operational speed.
Conflict and stress
______ has become one of the most used and abused form of organizational communication.
_______ is the productive potential of an individual's knowledge and actions.
One of Deming's most enduring lessons for managers is his: