Quality Management

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  1. Quality Management
    Knowledge area with 3 processes that focus on proactively planning for quality, assessing the overall quality process, and monitoring and controlling the quality of the product.

    • Processes:
    • 1. Plan Quality (planning)
    • 2. Perform Quality Assurance (executing)
    • 3. Perform Quality Control (M&C)
  2. Plan Quality
    Planning process within quality management that creates the quality management plan.

    • Key Inputs
    • (none)

    • Key Tools
    • Cost-Benefit Analysis
    • Cost of Quality
    • Control Charts
    • Benchmarking
    • Design of Experiments
    • Statistical Sampling
    • Flowcharting

    • Key Outputs
    • Quality Management Plan
    • Quality Metrics
    • Quality Checklist
    • Process Improvement Plan
  3. Perform Quality Assurance
    Executing process within quality management concerned with quality improvement, primarily for the process and subsequently for product.

    • Key Inputs
    • Quality Control Measurements

    • Key Tools
    • Quality Audits
    • Process Analysis

    • Key Outputs
    • Change Requests
  4. Perform Quality Control
    Monitoring & Controlling process concerned with improving the quality of the product and other project deliverables.

    • Key Inputs
    • Quality Metrics
    • Quality Checklists
    • Work Performance Measurements

    • Key Tools
    • Run Charts
    • Scatter Diagrams
    • Statistical Sampling
    • Inspection
    • Cause and Effect Diagrams
    • Control Charts
    • Flowcharting
    • Pareto Chart

    • Key Outputs
    • Validated Deliverables
  5. Standard Deviation
    A statistical calculation used to show how diverse the data in a sample are.

    A high standard deviation indicates that data points are scattered, while a low standard deviation indicates that data points are grouped closely together.

    A lower standard deviation would typically be more desirable in product and process measurements.
  6. Prevention
    Planning quality into the product before it's made. Prevention is preferred over inspection.
  7. Inspection
    Looking to find and remove low-quality deliverables after they are made. Prevention is preferable over inspection.

    This tools is used in the Verify Scope and Perform Quality Control processes.
  8. Attribute Sampling
    Looking at a deliverable to determine whether or not it conforms to specifications. Contrast with variable sampling.
  9. Variable Sampling
    Gradin a deliverable to rank it on a continuous scale. Contrast with attribute sampling.
  10. Special Cause
    A concept from statistical process control. When a defect is attributed to special cause, it indicates that it is due to something unusual and preventable. Special causes are preventable through process improvement.

    Contrast with common cause.
  11. Common Cause
    A concept from statistical process control. When a defect is attributed to common cause, it indicates that is due to normal process variation. Common cause is typically accepted.

    Contrast with special cause.
  12. Tolerances
    The limited the project or the customer has set for product acceptance.

    Contrast with control limits.
  13. Control Limits
    A concept used in control charts. Control limits are the limits on a process that determine whether or not a process is in control.
  14. Statistical Independence
    Statistical situation where the outcome of one event is not linked, or dependent, upon the outcome of another.

    Example: The outcome of one coin toss does not affect the next coin toss.
  15. Mutual Exclusivity
    Statistical occurence where the outcome of one event or choice excludes the other from happening. The term is used in both risk and quality management.

    Example: The outcome of heads on a coin toss excludes the outcome of tails on the same toss.
  16. Continuous Improvement
    Also known as Kaizen.

    Quality theory of Japanese Management that seeks to improve overall quality by making tiny ongoing chanages in the process or product.
  17. Total Quality Management
    Quality theory that states that everyone is responsible for quality and can make a difference in the ultimate quality of the product as well as the process.
  18. Just-In-Time Inventory Management

    A Japanese inventory control technique that keeps very low or no excess inventory to create a higher focus on quality on the few items that are in the inventory.
  19. Six Sigma
    Quality management philosophy that focuses on achieving high levels of quality by controlling process and reducing defects.

    1 Sigma Quality: 68.25% of the deliverables are within quality limits. 317,500 defects per million allowed.

    3 Sigma Quality: 99.73% of the deliverables are within quality limits. 2700 defects per million allowed.

    6 Sigma Quality: 99.99966% of the deliverables are within quality limits. 3.4 defects per million allowed.
  20. ISO 9000
    A standard, published by the International Organization for Standardization, that ensures that organization document what they do and do what they document.

    By itself, ISO 9000 does not directly lead to higher quality.
Card Set:
Quality Management
2015-12-01 04:30:24
Knowledge area
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