Knowledge area with 3 processes that focus on proactively planning for quality, assessing the overall quality process, and monitoring and controlling the quality of the product.
1. Plan Quality (planning)
2. Perform Quality Assurance (executing)
3. Perform Quality Control (M&C)
Planning process within quality management that creates the quality management plan.
Cost of Quality
Design of Experiments
Key Outputs Quality Management Plan
Process Improvement Plan
Perform Quality Assurance
Executing process within quality management concerned with quality improvement, primarily for the process and subsequently for product.
Quality Control Measurements
Key ToolsQuality Audits
Key OutputsChange Requests
Perform Quality Control
Monitoring & Controlling process concerned with improving the quality of the product and other project deliverables.
Key InputsQuality Metrics
Work Performance Measurements
Key ToolsRun Charts
Cause and Effect Diagrams
Key OutputsValidated Deliverables
A statistical calculation used to show how diverse the data in a sample are.
A high standard deviation indicates that data points are scattered, while a low standard deviation indicates that data points are grouped closely together.
A lower standard deviation would typically be more desirable in product and process measurements.
Planning quality into the product before it's made. Prevention is preferred over inspection.
Looking to find and remove low-quality deliverables after they are made. Prevention is preferable over inspection.
This tools is used in the Verify Scope and Perform Quality Control processes.
Looking at a deliverable to determine whether or not it conforms to specifications. Contrast with variable sampling.
Gradin a deliverable to rank it on a continuous scale. Contrast with attribute sampling.
A concept from statistical process control. When a defect is attributed to special cause, it indicates that it is due to something unusual and preventable. Special causes are preventable through process improvement.
Contrast with common cause.
A concept from statistical process control. When a defect is attributed to common cause, it indicates that is due to normal process variation. Common cause is typically accepted.
Contrast with special cause.
The limited the project or the customer has set for product acceptance.
Contrast with control limits.
A concept used in control charts. Control limits are the limits on a process that determine whether or not a process is in control.
Statistical situation where the outcome of one event is not linked, or dependent, upon the outcome of another.
Example: The outcome of one coin toss does not affect the next coin toss.
Statistical occurence where the outcome of one event or choice excludes the other from happening. The term is used in both risk and quality management.
Example: The outcome of heads on a coin toss excludes the outcome of tails on the same toss.
Also known as Kaizen.
Quality theory of Japanese Management that seeks to improve overall quality by making tiny ongoing chanages in the process or product.
Total Quality Management
Quality theory that states that everyone is responsible for quality and can make a difference in the ultimate quality of the product as well as the process.
Just-In-Time Inventory Management
A Japanese inventory control technique that keeps very low or no excess inventory to create a higher focus on quality on the few items that are in the inventory.
Quality management philosophy that focuses on achieving high levels of quality by controlling process and reducing defects.
1 Sigma Quality: 68.25% of the deliverables are within quality limits. 317,500 defects per million allowed.
3 Sigma Quality: 99.73% of the deliverables are within quality limits. 2700 defects per million allowed.
6 Sigma Quality: 99.99966% of the deliverables are within quality limits. 3.4 defects per million allowed.
A standard, published by the International Organization for Standardization, that ensures that organization document what they do and do what they document.
By itself, ISO 9000 does not directly lead to higher quality.