AP Chemistry Ch 1

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AP Chemistry Ch 1
2010-08-25 21:45:25
chemistry basics

The Fundamentals of Chemistry
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  1. The study of organic compounds, which are compounds comprised of carbon,
    hydrogen, and sometimes a few other elements like oxygen, nitrogen, and
    Organic Chemistry
  2. The study of all inorganic compounds.
    Inorganic Chemistry
  3. The branch of chemistry that is concerned with the detection or identification of substances present in a sample (qualitative analysis) or with the amount of each that is present (quantitative analysis).
    Analytical Chemistry
  4. The branch of chemistry that applies the mathematical theories and methods of physics to the properties of matter and to the study of chemical processes and the accompanying energy changes.
    Physical Chemistry
  5. The study of the chemistry of processes in living organisms.
  6. Anything that has mass and occupies space.
  7. A measure of the quantity of matter in a sample of any material. Usually measured in grams or kilograms.
  8. The type of energy that a body in motion possesses.
    Kinetic Energy
  9. The capacity to do work or to transfer heat.
  10. The energy an object possesses because of its position, condition, or composition.
    Potential Energy
  11. Type of process in qhich energy is released to the surroundings.
  12. A type of reaction or change during which energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
  13. There is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or during a physical change.
    Law of Conservation of Matter
  14. Energy cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction of in a physical change. It can only be converted from one form to another.
    Law of Conservation of Matter
  15. The combined amount of matter and energy in the universe is fixed.
    Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy
  16. Properties that are exhibited by matter as it undergoes channges in composition.
    Chemical Properties
  17. Properties that can be observed in the absence of any change in composition.
    Physical Properties
  18. Properties that depend on the amount of material examined
    Extensive Properties
  19. Properties that are independent of the amount of material examined
    Intensive Properties
  20. A change during which 1) one or more substances are used up (at least partially) 2) one or more new substances are formed, and 3) energy is absorbed or released.
    Chemical Change
  21. A change that occurs with no change in chemical composition.
    Physical Change
  22. Combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance retains its identity and properties.
  23. How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.
  24. Exactly 4.184 joules
  25. A substance composed of two or more elements in fixed proportions
  26. Mass per unit volume
  27. A substance that cannot be decomposed iinto simpler substances by chemical means.
  28. A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their difference in temperature
  29. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of whatever mass) one degree Celsius
    Heat capacity
  30. A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout
    Heterogeneous Mixture
  31. A mixture that has uniform compposition and properties throughout
    Homogeneous Mixture
  32. A unit of energy in the SI system. Equal to 1 kg(m2/s2), which is also 0.2390 cal
  33. Different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass; also known as the Law of Constant Composition
    Law of Definite Proportions
  34. How closely repeated measurements of the same quantity agree with one another
  35. Characteristics that describe samples of matter (can be chemical or physical)
  36. A general statement based on the observed behavior of matter, to which no exceptions are knownn.
    Scientific (Natural) Law
  37. Digits that indicate the precision of measurements -- digits of a measured number that have uncertainty only in the last digit.
    Significant Figures
  38. The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water at the same temperature
    Specific Gravity
  39. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius
    Specific Heat
  40. Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties
  41. A letter or group of letters that represents an element
  42. A factor in which the numerator and denominator are expressed in different units but represent the same or equivalent amounts. Multiplying by this is the same as multiplying by 1.
    Unit Factor
  43. A measure of the gravitational attraction of the earth for a body