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Dilemmas of definitions?
- 1- mental disorders a violation of cultural standars
- 2- mental disorders as emotional disorders
- 3- mental disorders as behavior that can harm oneself or others
close identity with religious or ethnic group
identification with the dominant cukture
belief that your culture is superior to others
summary impression of a group of people in which all members of the group share a trait or traits
ex : cheerleaders jocks nerds
robbers cave experiment
- eagles vs rattlers
- not friends with other group
- worked together for common goal
- after the frienships mingled
active dislike toward women
positive attitude put women on a pedestal but still reinforces women's subordinance
ex: barefoot and pregnant at hom ein the kitchen
how can we reduce prejudice?
- 1- equal legal status and economic power
- 2- moral legal and economic support for both
- 3- work and socialize together
- 4- cooperate towards one common goal
What are the three causes of prejudice?
- 1- fear and doubt
- 2- social / cultural group think [friends, family, associates]
- 3- economic wealthy vs poor
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
- 1-"overdiagnosing" [ADHD ex. fastest growing disorder diagnosed 10 times more in US than in europe]
- 2-power of label [ excuses for behavior, rather than fixing the problem "oh he has bipolar so its ok to ohave manic states"]
- 3-confusion [everyday problems being compared to actual disorders]
Mental disorder - emotional distress
own depression anxiety incapacitating fear or problems with drugs
mental disorder - violation of culture
hearing voice of a dead loved one is not ok and is considered crazy in USA but is normal in chinese culture
mental behavior - distructive or harmful
- -afraid of crowds > stay home
- -drink too much > cant hold a job
- -sever anxiety over a test > cant take the test [F]
illusion of universiality and objectivity
group concensess for DSM rather than actual evidence
consist of ambigious pics sentences stories that the test taker interprets
ex: rorchach ink blot test
questionaire that the client takes
ex:minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
generalized anxiety disorder?
continuous uncontrollable anxiety a feeling of foreboding and dread majority of days through out 6 month pds.
posttraumatic stress disorder
PTSD -- tauma leaves a fear and long lasting effects. insomnia jumpiness agitation
ex war, 9/11, car accident w a death that occurs.
- recurring attacks of intenses fear or panic impending doom or death.
- losing breath cant breathe dizziness hearing gets muffled etc
exaggerated fear of an object or specific situation
ex: tin foil, cotton balls, plane, heights
fear of large crowds, escape may be difficult and help could be limited if a panic attack occurs. linked to panic disorders / anxiety. person stays at home doesnt leave much. statys with trusted individual or spouse.
OCD [obsessive compulsive disorder]
obsessions become uncontrollable and interfere with everyday life
ex true life i have OCD [death, rituals]
major depression = serious mood disorder highs and lows, anti social. sleeps a lot. something bad is going to happen always negative
- manic highs manic lows
- lows: sleep a lot
- highs: sex drugs alcohol
ex: kurt cobain killed himself in a manic low. he was on drugs and had groupies for when he had a high.
persons vulnerability interacts with stressful events
depression and vulnerability stress model of depression
- 1-genetic factors
- 2-life experiences- inner city kids vs rural kids
- 3-loss of a loved one or a close relationship- both present and past [mother father boyfriend]
- 4-cognitive habts- all negative thoughs
marcissistic personality disorder?
obsessed with one self a little toooo much<3 them self like WOAH
- no conscience
- inability to feel normal emotions
- no remorse, guilt, empathy for the pain that they cause others
- [serial killer, serial rapist]
antisocial personality disorder [APD]
- -bad kids
- -fail to hold job or meet obligations
- -teen deliquents
causes of APD ?
- 1-abnoraml in central nervous system
- 2-impared frontal lobe function- inability to control responses to frustration and provocation
- 3-genetic influences- abused as a child bad genes
alocholoism happens more...
in a culture that doesnt allow children to drin [usa]
multiple personality disorder?
- think they are more than one person
- -hannah montana and miley cyrus
- 1-delusions- dogs are aliens disguised as pets
- 2-hallucinations- happens and seems soooo real but it never happened
- 3-disorganized incoherent speech
- 4-grossly disorganized inapproriate behavior
- 5-impaired cognitive abilities-speech motor skills etc
shizo - why?
- 2-brain abnomalities
- 3-neurotransmitter abnormaility
- 4-bith complications
- 5-brain development issues in adolecence
- for depression, impulse control, and bipolar.
- reduce / block sensitivity of brain receptors that respond to dopamine
- treat depression
- boot norepinephrine and serotonn levels preventing the normal reabsorption
- mild anxiety
- symptoms always return when medication is stopped.
- pretects brain cells from being overstimulated by another nurotransmitter glutamate
problems with drugs for disorders?
- 1-placebo effect- will respong quickly due to the "hype" they think it is working but eventutally the effects fade and the drug simply isnt working
- 2-high drop out- 1/2 to 2/3 will stop taking the drugs due to unpleasant side affects relapse
- 3-dosage problems- not the right dose not enough or too much
- 4-unknown long term effects
cut out parts of the brain that are causing emotional problems or or disturbing behavior
electroconvulsive therapy [ECT]
shock therapy [to help brain waves functin "normally"]
- couch talk
- talk about dreams and memories of childhood
- explore unconcious dynamics of personality defenses and conflicts
- transference -- feelings about parents
behavioral therapy ?
- 1-exposure - bringing them gradually to the object they fear
- 2-systematic disensitization- step by step process [true life death]
- 3- behavioral self monitoring- looking for the unattractive habits on your own
- 4-skills training- "dont be shy" "dont yell"
FLOODING=THROWING THE CLIENT INTO THE FEARED SITUATION HEAD FIRST
identify beliefs and expectations that might be the reason for anger fear anxiety depressin etc.
rational emotional therapy ?
- client-"no one likes me"
- dr-"do you really have not one friend" "has no one been nice to you this year" "how do you know that"
client centered therapy?
emphassize warmth and empathy identify with clients feelings
helps clients meaning ad helps with the question of life. why am i here?