OChem- week 2

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chiroclown
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31289
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OChem- week 2
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2010-08-27 01:16:47
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Ochem Test
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OChem- Test 2
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  1. Alkenes
    Pure Hydrogen Carbon with at least 1 double bond
  2. Boiling Point increases by 20-30 degrees
    Add 1 carbon to a straight chain molecule
  3. Dipole Moment
    The greater the dipole moment the more polarity, thus the greater the BP
  4. Entegen-Zusamen
    • Similar to Trans-Cis
    • Used in a molecule with 3 or more large groups
  5. Dienes
    2 double bonds in a molecule
  6. Rules to have Cis or Trans in an Alkene
    • 1) C=C
    • 2) 2 large groups- 1 each on adjacent carbons
    • 3) 2 Hydrogens- must be on the double bond carbons
  7. Functional group in an Alkene
    The double bond
  8. Trans in a molecule
    is more stable
  9. To determin E-Z with large groups
    • He who has the greater atomic number is considered the larger group.
    • Ties are broken by carbon substitution (more substitution = largest group).
  10. Carbon Substitution
    Carbons bonded to anything but a Hydrogen
  11. To find the E-Z when given the name
    • 1) Draw out the chain
    • 2) Create the C=C in a box
    • 3) Determine E-Z
  12. Cis always has a Higher ____ and Lower _____ than trnas
    Boiling Point, Melting Point
  13. Sytzef's Rule/ Anti-Saytzef's Rule
    • Poor Get Poorer- Major product
    • Rich Get Poorer- Minor Product
  14. Dehydrohalogenation
    • Synthesis
    • Saytzef's rule w/ major & minor
    • Poor get Poorer, Rich Get Poorer
    • KOH in alcohol
    • Original contains a halogen
    • alKANE to alKENE
  15. Dehydration of Alcohol
    • Synthesis
    • Saytzef's rule w/ major & minor products
    • Poor get Poorer, Rich Get Poorer
    • H+ bonds w/ OH of alcohol creates H2O
    • Starts as an alcohol creates an alkene + H2O when in acid
    • AlkANE to AlkENE
  16. 3D
    • Dehydrohalogenation
    • Dehydration of alcohols
    • Dehalogenation of Vicinaldihalides

    Synthesis of Alkenes
  17. Dehalogenation of Vicinal Dihalides
    • Synthesis
    • alKANE to alKENE
    • 2 halogens on adjoining carbons
    • Adds Zn
    • No major/ minor
    • Check for Cis/Trans
    • Halogens link on to Zn (i.e. ZnX2)
  18. Reduction of Alkynes
    • Synthesis
    • alkynes to alKENES
    • Saytzef's Rule w/ Major & Minor
    • Poor get Poorer, Rich get Poorer
    • Major- Lindlar Catylst, H2
    • Minor- Na, Li, NH3
    • 2 large groups on same side- lateral for Major poduct
    • Check for Cis/Trans
  19. Lindlar Catylst
    Creates 2 large groups on same side
  20. SAC
    Reactions of Alkenes

    • SAC-
    • Substitutions
    • Additions
    • Cleavage
  21. SE//AM
    • SE- Saytzef's Elimination
    • AM- Addition Markovnikov
  22. Addition of Hydrogen
    • Addition of Hydrogen in Pt, Pd, Ni
    • Markovnikov, Rich get Richer, Poor get Richer
    • alKENE to alKANE
    • + is currency
  23. Addition of Halogens
    • Reaction
    • Markovnikov w/ major & minor products
    • Rich get richer, poor get richer
    • alKANE to alKENE
    • Addition of X2 in CD4 (CCl4)
    • Richer in +
    • Halogen splits into + and -
  24. Addition of Hygrogen Halides
    • Reaction
    • Markovnikov, Major & Minor
    • Rich get richer, poor get poorer
    • Richer in +
    • alKENE to ALKANE
    • Hydrogen (+) and Group 7 (-)
  25. Addition of Sulfuric Acids
    • Reaction
    • Markovnikov, Major & Minor
    • Rich get richer, poor get richer
    • HSO4
    • alKENE to alKANE
    • H+ and HSO4-
  26. Addition of Water/ Hydrate Alcohols
    • Reaction
    • Markovnikov, Major & Minor
    • Rich get Richer, Poor get Poorer
    • Richer in +
    • Reaction of alKENE in H20 (H+ and OH-)
    • alKENE to alKANE
    • Creates an alcohol side group
  27. Halohydration
    Halohydrin Formation
    • Reaction
    • Markovnikov, Major & Minor
    • Rich get richer, poor get richer
    • H20 and Halogen (Group 7)- X+ and OH- attach
    • alKENE to alcohol alKANE
    • richer in +
  28. Alkylation
    • Reaction
    • Markovnikov, Major & Minor
    • Rich get richer, poor get poorer
    • Alcohol in acid
  29. Oxymercuration
    • Reaction
    • Major product only
    • Creates an alcohol alKANE
    • H20 + Hg(OAc)2
    • OH attaches to + charged C
    • Large group leaves becomes H
  30. Cations=more stable= warms faster
  31. Hydroboration-Oxidation
    • Reaction
    • Minor product only but it is Rich gets Richer
    • (BH3)2 = Diborane in H20
    • H+ and OH- attach
    • alKENE to alcohol alKANE
  32. Hydroxylation
    • Reaction
    • Major (Hot) and Minor (Cold)
    • Major- KMn04, Hot, Conc, aldahide,
    • Minor- KMn04, cold dilute, alcohol
    • if you make an aldahide, put an O btwn H & C and make an oic acid
  33. H-C=O
    aldahide
  34. In Hydroxlyation major product-
    • Break the alkene bond and replace with double bond O on carbon
    • If this creates an aldahide, put an O btwn H &C and create an Oic Acid
  35. Ozonolysis
    • Cleavage Reaction
    • Major- KMnO4, Hot, conc- break the alkene bond add = O to carbons
    • Minor- O3, Break the alkene bond and add = O to carbons
  36. Reverse Ozonolysis
    Replace the double bond where the carbons are split with = O
  37. Halogenation
    • Substitution Reaction
    • Benzylic Alpha Allylic (Baa)
    • Halogen reacting in heat
    • Halogen replaced Hydrogen at opposite end of double bond
    • X-C-C=C
  38. Diene
    Hydrocarbon with 2 double bonds
  39. Isolated Diene
    double bonds on opposite ends of each other
  40. Cumulated Diene
    • double bonds on carbons next to each other
    • 1 carbon has 2 double bonds
  41. Conjugate Diene
    • C=C-C=C-C
    • Double bond skips a carbon
  42. Diene that participates in 1,2 or 1,4 addition
    • Conjugated
    • Major Products Only, Rich get richer
    • HBR

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