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- modular narratives involve the use of flashbacks and/or flashforwards, with no clear dominance between any of the narrative threads. These narratives also often repeat scenes directly or via a different perspective.
- ex. Pulp Fiction or Memento
- narratives juxapose alternative versions of a story, showing the possible outcomes that might result from small changes in a single event or group of events. The forking-path narrative introduces s number of plotlines that usually contradict one another
- ex. Groundhog Day and Run Lola Run
narratives are organized as an abstract series or narrative anthology
Abstract series: type of modular narrative is characterized by the operation of a non-narrative formal system which appears to dictate (or at least overlay) the organization of narrative elements such as a sequence of numbers or the alphabet.
Anthology- consists of a series of shorter tales which are apparently disconnected but share a random similarity, such as all 'episodes' being survivors of a shipwreck
narratives are different from the other types of modular narrative discussed here, because their modularity is articulated along spatial rather than temporal lines. These films divide the screen into two or more frames, juxtaposing events within the same visual field, in a sustained fashion.