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is generally recognized as the “hub” of calypso (the place it comes from)
calypso is actually part of a long vocal tradition stemming from the
African presence in the West Indies at large.
Calypso music, at heart, is
Texts of calypso songs are very important. They are typically in
Calypso texts discuss or reflect the
is an annual, Pre-Lenten festival that happens in T&T, and throughoutthe Latin American world
Carnival is also known as
Carnival was introduced to Trinidad by _______ during the colonial period.
The word carnival comes from two Latin words:
“carne” and “vale.”
“farewell to flesh”
Important activities in Trinidad Carnival include
- playing mas’ (dressing up incostume),
- music (including calypso/soca music and steel band)
British rule, which began in Trinidad in 1797, led to a number of eventualrestrictions on Carnival celebrations, which amounted to increasing tensionsbetween
upper and lower classes
Each masquerade band that would parade through the streets during Carnival inthe 1800s was lead by a
The transition from chantwell to calypsonian took place when the presentation of
Instead of just roaming the streets or appearing at Carnival fetes at random, chantwells began performing in
generally male, and from the lower socio-economic classes.
Calypso music was the dominant popular music style for most of the 20th century, upuntil the 1970s when it was supplanted by the style known as
Early calypso: ca. 1900-WWIIThis era is sometimes known as the _____________ of calypso
Early calypso: ca. 1900-WWII
- • guitar or cuatro (a Venezuelan four-stringed strumming instrument), bass,piano
- • violin, or perhaps clarinet, trumpet are possible
- • no percussion
a verbal battle between calypsonians Early calypso: ca. 1900-WWII
Picong or extempo
- • percussion is more prevalent; bongos, congas, maracas can be heard
- • violin and clarinet disappear; saxophone becomes more common
- • electric guitar
- • drumset is now present
- • full horn sections of trumpets and saxophones common
- • electric keyboard and bass
Soca music is
was developed in the 1970s; a combination of calypso, pop/rock, and Indian(Hindi) rhythm. is the primary popular music of today in Trinidad.
How is soca distinguished from calypso? Several important ways:
- 1. Technology has enabled soca artists to utilize computer-generated drum sounds; synthesized horns, etc.
- 2. Tempo range has been extremely narrowed. Whereas calypso can take many different tempos, soca generaly is moderate to fast
- 3. The underlying groove of soca features a pumping bass drum emphasizingthe beat.
- 4. Soca lyrics are almost exclusively about dancing and partying. Gone arethe subtleties of text, the double-meanings, the verbal battles, the wordplay. Nuance is lost in favor of ‘jam and wine’ (party and dance).
Aldwyn Roberts (aka,________): 1922-2000
Term adopted around the 1960s to describe the sense of“spice” in Latin American popular music.
music is popular music, played by bands in clubs, bars, etc. It is primarily dance music.
is an umbrella term encompassing many different styles of musicstemming primarily from Cuba and Puerto Rico.
salsa music, like other musical types found in Latin America, is a blend of
European and African elements.