Phylum Chordata 1

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  1. 5 Characteristics of all chordates 
    • Notochord
    • Dorsal hollow nerve chord
    • Pharyngeal gill slits
    • Endostyle
    • Post-anal tail
  2. Natural Selection
    The difference in reproductive success of individuals based on genetic traits
  3. Notochord characteristics (4)
    • Extends the length of the body
    • Axis for muscle attachment
    • Allows for undulating movements
    • In vertebrates, it's replaced by vertebrae
  4. What is the flexible, rodlike structure found in all chordates?
  5. What is the first part of the endoskeleton to appear in the embryo of all chordates?
  6. What body part persists throughout life in protochordates and jawless vertebrates?
  7. Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord (3)
    • Dorsal to notochord
    • Hollow tube is fluid-filled
    • Becomes the spinal cord in vertebrates
  8. How is the dorsal hollow nerve chord formed?
    Formed by infolding of the ectoderm
  9. What do the pharyngeal gill slits in primitive chordates become?
    feeding structures
  10. What do the pharyngeal gill slits in aquatic vertebrates (fishes & sharks) become?
  11. What 2 things do the pharyngeal gill slits in tetrapods become?
    Eustachian tubes (ear structure) & other jaw structures
  12. Endostyle (3)
    • Feeding structure in primitive chordates
    • Cells secrete hormones
    • Becomes thyroid glands in lampreys and vertebreates
  13. What did the postanal tail provide for larval tunicates and amphioxus to swim?
    The postanal tail plus musculature, provided motility
  14. What other phylum is a sister taxa to Chordates?
  15. Protochordata
    Cephalochordata & Urochordata
  16. Subphylum Cephalochordata
    Lancelets- amphioxious
  17. What drives water into the mouth of a lancelet?
  18. Water movement process of lancelets (2)
    • Buccal cavity and pharynx
    • Through the pharyngeal slits where food is trapped by mucus
  19. In lancelets, what secretes the mucus that traps food?
    The endostyle
  20. What role do pharyngeal slits play in lancelets?
    Filter feeding & gas exchange
  21. Subphylum Urochordata
  22. When are the chordate characters evident in tunicates?
    Larval stage
  23. Characteristics of tunicate
    • Loss of tail & notochord as adult
    • Sessile as adult
  24. Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata (3)
    • Endoskeleton
    • Head
    • Physiological upgrades
  25. What does the endoskeleton of vertebrates consist of? (3)
    • Cranium 
    • Vertebrae
    • Notochord in embryonic stage
  26. Why is the vertebrates head so important?
    it holds the brain and sensory equipment
  27. Tripartite brain
    Allows for specialization
  28. Why is olfaction important in vertebrates?
    It allows animals to smell
  29. What are some physiological "upgrades" of vertebrates? (2)
    • Larger
    • More active as predators
  30. Class Agnatha (2)
    • Hagfish & Lampreys
    • Lack jaws and paired fins
  31. Lampreys
    About 30 species
  32. Hagfish (2)
    • Produce tons of slime
    • Scavengers that feed on dead animals
  33. What was on land before fish got there?
    Plants, arthropods, and some molluscs
  34. 3 Reasons why fish moved to land
    • Unlimited niches
    • Lack of predators
    • Lots of available resources (food)
  35. What is a niche?
    Specific role an animal plays in an ecosystem
  36. Pros of fish moving to land (2)
    • 20x more oxygen than in water
    • Fewer predators
  37. Cons of fish moving to land (2)
    • Gravity
    • Temperature fluctuations
  38. What are the 2 major groups of vertebrates?
    Agnatha (w/out jaws) & Gnathostomes (w/ jaws)
Card Set:
Phylum Chordata 1
2015-12-11 19:53:19
chordata zoology
desciption of the phylum chordata
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