Sensation and Perception

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Author:
ushernettab
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3130
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Sensation and Perception
Updated:
2009-12-15 00:01:03
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GEN PSYCHOLOGY
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Sensation and Perception
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  1. Sensation
    is the process that detects stimuli from our body and our environment
  2. Perception
    is the process that organizes sensations into meaningful objects and events
  3. Selective attention
    Determining relevance of stimulation
  4. Abstracting critical information
    Telling identity of an object, even when appearance is distorted
  5. Perceptual constancy
    Keeping the appearance / size of objects constant, even though their retinal images are changing
  6. Screening or filtering information
    Cannot process all impinging stimulation
  7. visual scanning
    quick search
  8. fixations
    brief periods (300 msec) during which the eyes are relatively stationary and visual information is acquired from the environment
  9. saccades
    quick jumps of the eye from one place to the next (20 msec) during which vision is essentially suppressed
  10. Multimodal
    attention can move within a modality, such as from one visual stimulus to another, or between modalities, from seeing to listening
  11. Cocktail party phenomenon
    Hearing your own name mentioned across a room crowded with conversation
  12. Shadowing
    repeating back one auditory message (we consciously remember little, if anything, about nonattended information)
  13. Dichotic Listening
    different auditory message received by each ear
  14. figure
    the object of interest which appears more solid than the ground and appears in front of it
  15. ground
    the region that appears to be behind the figure
  16. Grouping by proximity
    if the vertical distance between two dots is reduced, columns will most likely be seen
  17. Grouping by similarity
    grouping like objects with like objects
  18. Depth cues
    different kinds of visual information that, logically or mathematically, provide information about some object’s depth
  19. Binocular disparity
    Eyes have slightly different views of same object
  20. Relative size
    If view contains similar objects that differ in size, smaller objects seen as further away
  21. Interposition
    If one object obstructs view of another, the overlapping object is seen as closer
  22. Relative height
    Among similar objects, those located closer to the horizon are perceived as further away
  23. Perspective (Visual parallax)
    Parallel lines seen as converging in the distance are perceived as vanishing in the distance (ASH)
  24. Shading and shadows
    Relative size of shadows perceived as related to height / size of object
  25. Relative motion (Motion parallax)
    Speed at which objects appear to move affects perceived distance
  26. Stroboscopic motion
    Rapid flashing of still images in which actors’ expressions change subtly from one image to the next
  27. Real motion
    Movement of object through all intermediate locations in space
  28. Selective adaptation
    Selective loss in sensitivity to motion (downward moving stripes), but not to motion that differs significantly in direction or speed
  29. Illusory conjunction
    Incorrectly combining two separate features of an object
  30. Preattentive stage
    primitive features (e.g., shape and color) are perceived (visual search task)
  31. Attentive stage
    Individual, primitive features are combined to form an integrated whole
  32. Dynamic control theory
    malleable, task responsive perceptual system
  33. Feature detectors
    Cells in visual cortex that respond to only specific stimuli the receptive field (RF= part of retinal region)
  34. Simple cells
    Respond only to simple line stimuli at a particular orientation and position with the receptive field
  35. Complex cells
    Respond to bar or edge in a particular orientation, but stimulus can be anywhere in visual field
  36. Hypercomplex cells
    Stimulus must be in particular orientation but also must be a specific length
  37. Network models
    Features are combined through network in memory that allows identification
  38. Bottom-up processing
    driven solely by input, raw, sensory data
  39. Top-down processing
    driven by a person’s knowledge
  40. Ambiguous objects
    objects that can be perceived in more than one way
  41. Agnosia
    breakdowns or disorders in recognition
  42. Associative agnosia
    difficulty recognizing visually presented objects due to damage in temporal lobe regions of the cortex
  43. Prosopagnosia
    category-specific deficits as a result of damage to the right hemisphere
  44. Pure alexia
    inability to recognize words as a result of damage to the left occipital lobe
  45. Abstraction
    The process of reducing the information that comes in from the physical world through our senses to a more manageable set of categories
  46. Constancy
    The brain’s ability to maintain the perception of the underlying physical characteristics of an object, even when the sensory manifestations of the objects change drastically

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