Phylum Chordata 3

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  1. Characteristics of Order Testudines- Turtles (5)
    • Vertebrae fused to upper shell
    • Anapsid skull
    • Lack teeth
    • Can hold breath for over 3 hours
    • Only come on land to lay eggs
  2. What did snakes and lizards evolve?
    A kinetic skull with moveable joints (jaw can open wide)
  3. Characteristics of Order Squamata- snakes & lizards (2)
    • Diapsid skull
    • Keritonized, epidermal scales
  4. Ectotherms
    Terrestrial animals have body temperatures determined by environment
  5. Advantages and Disadvantages to Ectotherms
    • Advantage= don't waste energy maintaining body heat
    • Disadvantage= unlucky in cold weather
  6. Lizards (3)
    • Geckos, iguanas, chameleons
    • 4 limbs
    • Moveable, camer-lens eyes
  7. Snakes (4)
    • Limbless
    • Increase muscle attachment for movement
    • Poor vision
    • Highly kinetic skull
  8. Other sensory organs that snakes posses (2)
    • Jacobson organ (chemicals trapped on tongue pass over the organ)
    • Pit organ (sense heat)
  9. Archosaurs (3)
    • Dinosaurs
    • Crocodiles
    • Birds
  10. Dinosaur characteristics (3)
    • First large land animals on Earth
    • Lived in herds
    • Evidence of prenatal nest care
  11. Icthyosaurs (2)
    • Fully marine reptiles
    • Once filled the niche of dolphins
  12. Order Sphenodonta- Tuataras (3)
    • Only 2 living species
    • Restricted to islets off New Zealand
    • Primitive diapsid skull
  13. What happened to dinosaurs? (3)
    • Asteroid impact
    • Volcanic eruptions
    • Decrease in primary food source
  14. Order Crocodilla- Crocodiles & Alligators (3)
    • Only surviving reptiles of archosaurian lineage
    • Body plans remain unchanged
    • Elongate, robust diapsid skull w/ massive jaws
  15. Thecodont Dentition
    Teeth sockets have roots
  16. Archaeopteryx (3)
    • Ancestor of modern birds
    • Thecodont dentition
    • Feathers but flightless
  17. Characteristics of Class Aves (5)
    • Forelimbs modified into wings
    • Feathers
    • Specialized endoskleton
    • Keritanous beak around jaw bones
    • Endothermic
  18. How is the endoskeleton of birds specialized for flying?
    Lightweight endoskeleton
  19. Feathers of birds (4)
    • Derived from epidermis
    • Non-vascular
    • Molted
    • Secondarily utilized for flight
  20. What are birds feather evolved for? (3)
    • Thermoregulation
    • Camoflauge
    • Courtship displays
  21. Respiratory system of birds (3)
    • High energy demands (flying)
    • Take in & process high volume of oxygen
    • Air sacs and flow-through lungs (parabronchi)
  22. Eyes of birds (2)
    • Large immobile eye (turn head)
    • Great visual acuity
  23. What are the rods and cones of a birds retina used for?
    • Rods- for dim light
    • Cones- for color vision
  24. Pecten (2)
    • Unique to birds
    • Provides nutrients & oxygen to the eye
  25. Why do birds migrate? (4)
    • Less predators¬†
    • Seasonal food
    • Avoid climate variability
    • Decrease competition
  26. How do birds migrate? (4)
    • Eyesight
    • Earth's magnetic field
    • Stars
    • Sun orientation
  27. How do birds attract mates? (4)
    • Colorful plumage
    • Vocalization
    • Nest building
    • Dancing
  28. Hypothetical Origin of Flight (3)
    • Arboreal
    • Insect-net
    • Climbing
  29. What was the asteroids impact on dinosaur extinction?
    Caused massive debris cloud, tsunamis, & temperature variation
  30. What was the volcanic eruptions impact on dinosaur extinction?
    Cause massive amounts of sulfure, and chlorine in the atmosphere
  31. Why were dinosaurs so large?
    Herbivores relied on big trees so predators needed to be large
  32. What two groups of mammals evolved then went extinct?
    • Pelycosaurs
    • Cynodonts
  33. What are the most primitive mammal amniotes?
    Synapsids
  34. What were early mammals like?
    Small, nocturnal animals
  35. Characteristics of class mammalia (5)
    • Endothermic
    • Hair
    • Specialized integument with glands
    • External ears and hearing capabilities
    • Uterine embryonic development
  36. What is mammalian hair modified for? (3)
    • Quills
    • Vibrissae
    • Warmth
  37. Mammalian hair (3)
    • Keratinized
    • Grows continuously from follicle in dermis
    • Shed/ molted continuously
  38. Mammalian glands (3)
    • Sweat glands
    • Scent glands
    • Mammary glands
  39. Sweat glands (2)
    • Thermoregulation
    • Only in mammals (endothermic)
  40. Scent glands (2)
    • Communication, defense
    • Location varies
  41. Mammary glands (3)
    • Only in mammals
    • All females, rudimentary in males
    • All species produce different milk
  42. What is the organ that connects the fetus to the female uterus?
    Placenta
  43. What is the uterine development in mammals?
    Mammals give birth to live youngs
  44. 3 main groups of mammals
    • Monotremes
    • Marsupials
    • Placental Mammals
  45. Monotremes (4)
    • Egg laying mammals
    • No nipples
    • Milk secreted through integument
    • Echidnas and Platypus
  46. Marsupials (2)
    • Give birth to jellybean sized embryo
    • Growth occurs in pouch outside of female body
  47. What marsupial is found in north america?
    Possum
  48. Who are the slowest developing of all placental mammals?
    Humans
  49. In placental mammals, where are the differences found? (4)
    • Feet bones
    • Leg bones
    • Jaw
    • Teeth
  50. What is the most common reproductive form in mammals?
    Placental reproduction
  51. Enhydra lutra (4)
    • Sea otters
    • Found only in north Pacific
    • Stay warm via dense fur
    • Voracious predators
  52. How are sea otters voracious predators? (3)
    • Eat constantly to maintain energy/warmth
    • 30% of body weight per day
    • Tool use
  53. What group of placental mammals do humans belong to?
    Primates
  54. Family Hominidae (4)
    • Orangutans
    • Gorillas
    • Chimpanzees
    • Humans
  55. To what animal are humans most closely related?
    Chimpanzees
  56. Homo sapiens (7)
    • Upright posture
    • Slow developing juveniles
    • Speech¬†
    • Naked
    • Blushing
    • Post-reproductive life
    • Enlarged Brain
  57. What was the first land tetrapod?
    Icthyostega

Card Set Information

Author:
lduran8
ID:
313026
Filename:
Phylum Chordata 3
Updated:
2015-12-14 08:42:44
Tags:
Chordata zoology
Folders:
zoology3
Description:
chordata continued
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