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  1. difference between hyperplasia and neoplasia
    • hyperplasia has a purpose, stops when the stimulus does, reversible, regulated.  
    • neoplasia has no purpose, doesn't stop, irreversible, not regulated
  2. benign vs malignant
    • benign - well differentiated, cells uniform, grows by expansion, no metastasis or necrosis
    • malignant - poorly differentiated, anaplastic, non-uniform cells, nuclei not normal, infiltrative/invasive, metastasis common
    • necrosis common.
  3. Gold standard of malignancy
    metastasis
  4. broad classifications of tumor naming (2)
    • epithelial or mesenchymal
    • (also benign or malignant)
  5. -oma
    indicates benign
  6. benign tumor of lining epithelium
    • epithelioma
    • papilloma, if exophytic
  7. benign tumor of glandular epithelium, or makes glands or tubules
    adenoma (thyroid adenoma, apocrine gland adenoma)
  8. benign mesenchymal tumor, ie fibrous tissue or bone
    • fibroma
    • osteoma
  9. malignant epithelial neoplasm (non-glandular)
    carcinoma (ie squamous cell carcinoma)
  10. malignant epithelial tumor that looks like (microscopically) or arises from glandular tissue
    adenocarcinoma (ie pancreatic adenocarcinoma, apocrine gland carcinoma)
  11. malignant mesenchymal neoplasm
    sarcoma
  12. malignant tumor of fibroblasts
    fibrosarcoma
  13. malignant tumor of osteoblasts
    osteosarcoma
  14. malignancy of WBC or tissue counterparts (mast cells, histiocytes)
    • leukemia
    • modified by cell type (lymphoblastic leukemia, mast cell leukemia)
    • begin in bone marrow
  15. epithelial tumor of skin (benign and malignant)
    • b - squamous papilloma
    • m - squamous cell carcinoma
  16. epithelial tumor of adnexa (benign and malignant)
    • sebaceous adenoma
    • sebaceous adenocarcinoma
  17. epithelial tumor of mammary gland (benign and malignant)
    • mammary adenoma
    • mammary adenocarcinoma
  18. epithelial tumor of kidney (benign and malignant)
    • renal adenoma
    • renal carcinoma or adenocarcinoma
  19. mesenchymal tumor of connective tissue (benign and malignant)
    • fibroma
    • fibrosarcoma
  20. mesenchymal tumor of bone (benign and malignant)
    • osteoma
    • osteosarcoma
  21. mesenchymal tumor of blood vessels (benign and malignant)
    • hemangioma
    • hemangiosarcoma
  22. malignant tumor of melanocytes
    • melanoma (technically melanosarcomas)
    • benign called melanocytoma
  23. teratoma
    • tumor of more than one germ line (may include teeth, hair, lots of recognizable bits)
    • malignant teratoma
  24. dysterminomas
    tumors that arise from germ cells
  25. NS tumors (meningeal, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia)
    • meningiomas
    • oligodendrogliomas
    • astrocytoma
    • glioblastoma
    • ALL MALIGNANT due to location
  26. gross appearance of mesenchymal tumors
    • -omas and -sarcomas
    • homogenous
    • white or pale
    • fleshy or soft
  27. gross appearance of epithelial tumors
    • adenomas, carcinomas, adenocarcinomas
    • lobulated
    • often lots of CT.  Young fibroblasts are pale and juicy (desmoplastic), mature collagen is hard and scar-like (scirrhous)
    • tumor is parenchyma, CT is stroma.
  28. desmoplastic
    response in epithelial tumors characterized by young fibroblasts, often pale and juicy
  29. scirrhous
    response in epithelial tumors including mature collagen, hard and scar-like.  Causes parynchyma (tumor) and stroma (made up of CT) pattern.
  30. gross appearance of benign tumors
    well circumscribed solitary masses with discrete CT capsule
  31. gross appearance of malignant tumors
    • hard to separate from adjacent tissue
    • not encapsulated
    • frequently areas of necrotic liquified cell debris and dystrophic mineralization
    • often ulcerated
    • often umbilicated or crateriform (due to necrosis or contraction of myofibrils/stroma)
  32. button tumors
    • histiocytoma (benign)
    • mast cell tumor (malignant)
    • can't tell which
  33. microscopic appearance of epithelial tumors
    • round to polygonal with abundant cytoplasm
    • supported by fibrovascular stroma (not neoplastic)
    • lining epithelial cohesive and arranged in packets/lobules (papillomas, squamous cell carcinomas)
    • glandular epithelium form acini and tubules (acinar, tubular, papillary, solid, mixed pattern).  ie tubulopapillary carcinoma
  34. microscopic appearance classifications of mesenchymal tumors (2)
    • spindle cell tumors: spindle shaped/angular, sheets of haphazard streams.  Usu produce ECM that helps ID (fibroblasts-collagen, osteoblasts-osteoid).  
    • round cell tumors: round, individual cells common, usu from hematopoietic cells though some not (merckel, TVT)
  35. anaplasia
    • lack of differentiation or resemblance to normal cells
    • Frequently includes pleomorphism (variation in cell size/shape), hyperchromasia (increased DNA content in nucleus), increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, large/multiple nuceloli, high numbers of mitotic figures, loss of polarity (disoranized growth)
  36. pleiomorphism
    variation in cell size and shape (anisocytosis)
  37. hyperchromasia
    increased DNA content in nucleus, aneuploidy
  38. loss of polarity
    disorganized growth, can't maintain normal tissue architecture
  39. tumor giant cells
    • two or more nuclei or single large polymorphic nucleus
    • often seen in anaplastic neoplasms
  40. hematogenous spread indicates
    • spread in blood
    • sarcoma
  41. lymphatic spread indicates
    • spread through lymphatics
    • carcinoma
  42. direct spread
    contact, shed cells as a means of metastasis
  43. trans-coelomic spread
    floating in peritoneal cavity, spreads to all organs within (carcinomatosis)
  44. theories of tumor spread (3)
    • "fertile soil" - not every tissue can support every tumor, grows where it can
    • "chance" - often vascular, just grows where it lands
    • "homing" - go to a specific site
  45. smooth muscle tumor (benign and malignant)
    • lyomyoma
    • lyomyosarcoma
  46. aleukemic leukemia
    cancer in bone marrow (true leukemia refers to marrow) without any circulating cancerous cells

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Author:
XQWCat
ID:
313051
Filename:
Gen Path
Updated:
2015-12-11 16:34:16
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