HWST Final Exam Review 2278

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  1. Treaty of Tordesillas
    June 7, 1494. Agreement between Spain and Portugese and aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th century explorers
  2. Conquistadore
    Spanish Explorer or conqueror
  3. Magellan
    He was the first to prove that the new world really was a distinct landmass, separate from Asia. First to circumnavigate the world. After sailing around around the southern tip of South America he sailed westward acrosst he Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, claiming them for Spain.Killed in Philipphines.
  4. Islas De Ladrones
    "Island of thieves" this name was given to the Marianas after Magellan discovered they had been stealing things from his ship. Magellen later punishes these thieves in a blood bath then bestows this name on them.
  5. Manila Galleon Trade
    • First sustained attempt to bridge America, Asia, and Pacific Worlds. Resulted in a lot of cross-cultural exchange i.e. religions, food, porcelain and silk from China, American silver
    • Spanish trading ships sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in Spanish East Indies (present day Philippines), Acapulco, New Spain
    • helped to bring wealth by carrying valuable goods. Ships were slow and Pirates targeted them making Spain lose its wealth
  6. Requiramiento
    • A requirement that military forces mist be accompanied by a church on new land to prevent harm to the people.
    • -1492 Document by conquistadors to Natives in Americas demanding that they submit themselves to Spanish rule
    • -Spanish 'requirement" as in demand
    • -Written declaration of sovereignty and war read by Spanish Military forces to assert dominating control over the Americas in 1510
  7. Sanvitores
    Jesuit priest in Guam who founded the 1st Catholic Church was killed because he tried to baptize child of a man who did not want the child to be baptized
  8. James Cook
    English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779). Found Pacific Islands
  9. Makahiki
    4 months during rainy season; celebrates the return of Lono- fertility god; last recited in honor of Captain Cook (they thought was Lono?) Ku- war god
  10. The Great Dying
    • Dying off of the Native Hawaiians
    • The massive epidemic caused by Old World diseases (zoonoses) after Columbian Exchange. It killed around 90% of the Native American (it also happened in parts of Asia and the Polynesian Islands).
  11. Provisioning
    • Loading supplies at a port during a voyage
    • ships would stop by the Hawaiian islands for supplies (provisions)
  12. Sandalwood
    • Fragrant wood from Hawai'i
    • Profitable trade that took place in China. Wood was harvested from Hawaii
    • used for trading that began the collapse of the Kapu system. Hawaii put in debt by traders and the forests died
  13. ABCFM
    American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; brought a written language to the Hawaiian people and First American Christian missionary organization
  14. Kamehameha
    • Hawaiian king who united the islands, Defeated all contenders for the throne and became Mo'i. Started wars that led to controlling the islands and a unified monarchy
    • Unified the Hawaiian islands in 1818, died in 1819
  15. Gerrit Judd
    • Missionary and Physician who helped pay off Hawaii's debt (Sandalwood)
    • Advisor to the royal family; was part of the ABCFM; penned the first Hawaiian constitution
    • American physician and missionary to the Kingdom of Hawai'i, later became a trusted advisor and cabinet minister to Kamehameha III
  16. Lord George Paulet
    • British commander who threatened Hawaii with war after a British consul claimed ali'i nui had stolen his land when it clearly said it was leased
    • occupied Hawaiian Islands for 5 months in 1843
  17. Bayonet Constitution
    1887, Legal document by anti-monarchists to strip Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority initiating transfer of power to American, European, and native Hawaiian elites. took Hawaiian rights to vote and Kalakaua's power
  18. Kalākaua
    • last male ruler of Hawaii
    • who revived hula and Hawaiian traditions
  19. Lili‘uokalani
    • Last Monarch
    • last queen of Hawaii
  20. James Blount
    sent to Hawaii in 1893 by President Grover Cleveland to investigate overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom; he deemed the overthrow illegal
  21. The Lottery Bill
    • An act granting a franchise permission to establish a lottery; also legalized opium
    • Lili'uokalani was in charge of signing bill because U.S. thought it was in her best interest, really it was proposed for the middle class
  22. Provisional Government
    Governed Kingdom of Hawai'i after the overthrow of Queen Lili'uokalani as provisional gov't until Republic of Hawaii was established (4 July 1894,) proclaimed 17 Jan. 1893 by Committee of Safety, Sanford B. Dole
  23. Albert Willis
    U.S. Representative from Kentucky, went on secret mission to meet with Queen Lili'uokalani to obtain promise of amnesty for those involved in the overthrow of Kingdom of Hawai'i
  24. Kuaihēlani Campbell
    President of the Women's branch of Hui Aloha Aina, (gathered many signatures across the islands for a petition against annexation)
  25. Palapala Hoopii Kue Hohui Aina
    Name of the petition (annexation) from Kuaihēlani Campbell
  26. ‘Ainoa
    • opposite of ʻaikapu; free eating
    • The abolition of the 'aikapu
  27. Ka‘ahumanu
    • Instigated the breaking of the kapu system
    • King Kamehameha's favorite wife
  28. Prohibitionary Laws
    Ka'ahumanu enacts a number of laws altering traditional morality and customs
  29. The Land Commission
    Created to settle land disputes between the kingdom of Hawai'i and settlers who weren't native Hawaiian
  30. Māhele
    "Division", Hawaiian land distribution act proposed by King Kamehameha allowing people to own land
  31. Kanaky
    • now called Noumea (used to be called New Caledonia); inhabitants called Kanaks
    • Derogatory term used toward New Caledonia peoples
  32. Indigenat
    • code of laws that spanned all French colonies. Especially Kanaks
    • Set of laws creating, in practice, an inferior legal status for natives of French Colonies from 1887-1947
  33. FLNKS
    Front de Liberation National KAnak et Socialiste; composed of Kanaks who were fed up with French rule
  34. The Noumea Accord
    • promised to grant political power to Noumea until decision is made about French dependency
    • Set a date for 15 years in the future for a vote to determine the status of New Caledonia, the people get to vote/decide
  35. Micronesia
    • place where nuclear testing occured
    • US has permanent military base here, obligation to the islands (strategic trust)
  36. Compact of Free Association
    With the country approaching decolonization, negotiation for free association began in 1970's, US wants Belau because of fallback arc, US provides financial assistance for 15 years to Micronesia, Belau (Palau), and Marshall Islands in exchange for full international defense authority and responsibilities
  37. Mandates
    • a requirement that must be met
    • Mandates were set up in order for Japan to maintain islands
  38. Strategic Trusts
    • a nation given to the care of another nation by the UN
    • U.S. would occupy the islands, Micronesia, strictly so no one else could
  39. Cold War
    Tension after WWII, both sides prepared for Nuclear War, testing in Micronesia
  40. Marshall Islands
    Part of the larger island group of Micronesia, 24 coral atolls
  41. Federated States of Micronesai
    Yap, Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, independent sovereign stations
  42. Belau
    U.S. associated state, associated with island group of Micronesia
  43. Fiji
    Independent state with British commonwealth
  44. The Great Council of Chiefs
    Chiefs brought together to rule Fiji formed by Sir Arthur Gordon, gave native chiefs authority of their people, lives, and land, allows them to keep traditions
  45. Belau Constitution
    • Constitution created the world's first nuclear-free country
    • Nuclear free clause in constitution could only be overturned by a 75% majority, In attempts to sway Belau, US offered 430 million dollars in aid and from of self-government in exchange for granting the Pentagon an option to use about one third of the island area for military bases, jungle warfare training, and transit of nuclear ships
  46. Hawaiian Homes Act
    • written by Prince Kuhio; 50% blood quantum = native Hawaiian
    • Set aside 200,000 acres of land for Native Hawaiians homesteading
  47. Ceded Lands Trust
    Crown and government lands seized from kingdom to be ceded to the U.S. in exchange for annexation
  48. OHA
    The "Office of Hawaiian Affairs" takes care of the revenues from ceded lands to fund programs for the people
  49. Rice v Cayetano
    The fight over the right to vote for the OHA trustee. Due to Rice's case now non-hawaiians are allowed to vote as well
  50. Ka Lāhui Hawai‘i
    • New Hawaiian nation formed by a handful of delegates who spoke for Hawai'i
    • Hawaiian grassroots organization
  51. The Kingdom of Hawai‘i
    grassroots group that advocates for secession
  52. Haruo Remeliik
    The President of Belau who was assassinated during a time when the US was pressuring Micronesia to abandon its nuclear free constitution
  53. Ipseco power plant
    built in Belau by the British company International Power Systems Inc. Belau was not able to pay for it so they had to halt construction
  54. Anahola
    Time to set aside" Families were angered with the long waiting list with no results. Families squatted on beach on Kauai because the county wanted to turn it into a park for tourists. They were arrested.
  55. Right to Sue Bill
    allows a private entity to sue a state
  56. George Cooke
    • first executive secretary of the Hawaiian Homes Commission
    • Executive secretary of homelands department that was one of the BIG 5 powers (Castle & Cooke)
  57. US Apology Law
    President Clinton apologized in 1993 for the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian kingdom
  58. The Akaka Bill
    • passed in the House; sought to classify native Hawaiians in the same way that Native Americans were classified
    • Bill for Federal recognition of a "Hawaiian Governing Entity"
  59. Kokua Hawaiʻi
    "Help Hawai'i" An activist group that started with protecting Kalama Valley, but now 'helps Hawai'i'
  60. Kalama Valley
    The first land struggle of modern Hawaiian resistance, communities fought for the agriculture lands in the valley to not become resorts and subdivisions
  61. The New Hawaiʻi
    "An enlightened post-plantation society governed by consensus politics where pluralism rather than oligarchy reigned"
  62. Blood quantum
    Articulates racist assumptions about human beings
  63. Mauna Kea
    Highest island mountain in the world, extinct volcano in Hawai'i
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HWST Final Exam Review 2278
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2015-12-12 09:22:45
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