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What are the Pre-pregnancy body wt and weight gain recommendation during pregnancy
- underweight: (BMI <19.8): 28 to 40 lb
- healthy weight: (BMI 19.8 to 26): 25-35lb
- overweight: (BMI 26 to 29): 15-25lb
- obese: (BMI >29): 15lb minimum
what is the Low birth-weight?
baby born under 5.5 pounds at birth
what are the Nutrient and caloric requirements during pregnancy
- Energy, Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat
- 1st Trimester: no additional needs
- 2nd trimester: Additional 340 daily cal
- 3rd trimester: Additional 450 daily cal
- carb: needed to fuel fetal brain and spear protein for fetal growth
- protein: increase 25g/day; protein supplements can be harmful to fetus
- fat: the brain depends on omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for its growth, function, and structure
- calcium: necessary to conserve the mother’s bone mass while supply fetal needs
- iron: during pregnancy, the body conserves iron by stopping menstruation, increasing absorption of iron by 3-fold; fetus is storing iron to last through the first 6 moths of life
- prenatal supplements: physicians often recommend daily multivitamin-mineral supplements for pregnant women; higher in folate, iron, and calcium than regular supplements
diseases affiliated pregnancy.
- gestational diabetes (GD)
Cautions for pregnant women (Problems to fetus with smoking and drugs, dieting, caffeine, mercury during pregnancy)
- smoking: smoking restricts the blood supply and delivery of oxygen to the fetus
- alcohol: oxygen is crucial on a minute-to-minute basis for the development of the fetus’ brain; alcohol stops the delivery of oxygen through the umbilical cord
- Lead & mercury exposure: lead and mercury during pregnancy may increase impaired cognitive development in a child
- caffeine: crosses the placenta; can increase their risk of spontaneous abortion
- drugs: Can easily cross the placenta, impair fetal growth & dev’t; Responsible for preterm birth, low-birthweight infants, SIDS; can damage CNS
- dieting: restrictive dieting, even if for a short period of time is hazardous during pregnancy; low-carb diet causes ketosis
Safer fish recommendation for pregnant women
the FDA and EPA further advice the same age groups of people to eat up to 12 oz a week of safer fish, such as canned chunk light tuna, wild pacific or alaskan salmon (not farmed—Atlantic salmon is always farmed), pollock, catfish, and shrimp
Explain the effects of alcohol on the development of the fetus and describe fetal alcohol syndrome
- alcohol stops the delivery of oxygen through the umbilical cord causing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) -- irreversible brain damage, growth & mental retardation, facial & vision abnormalities
- Less severe form of FAS is ARND (alcohol-related Neurodeveleopmenal Disorder) - mood disorder
List the benefits of breastfeeding
- Provides the appropriate composition & balance of nutrients
- Provides hormones that promote physiological development
- Improves cognitive development
- Protects against variety of infections
- May protect against some chronic dx; diabetes & HTN, later in life
- Protects against food allergies
- Reduces the risk of SIDS
Describe the circumstances when breastfeeding may not be appropriate
- alcohol: enters breast milk; can adversely affect production, volume, composition, and ejection of breast milk
- cigarettes: lactating women who smoke produce less milk, with a lower fat content
- oral contraceptives: estrogen and progestin suppress milk output; lower the nitrogen content of the milk;shorten the duration of breastfeeding
- HIV+: can be passed from the infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, a birth, or through breast milk
Dietary recommendations in first year of life
Babies need more than twice as much of most nutrients
Nursing bottle syndrome – what causes it? How to prevent it?
- Sucking for long periods of time pushes the normal jaw line out of shape causing protruding upper and receding lower teeth
- if they cry for thirst give them water not milk or juice
- if they cry for companionship, pick them up, not feed them
Food allergies in infants – Are these the same as food intolerances? What cautions do caregivers need to take with food allergies? Common foods that cause allergies
- New foods should be introduced one at a time (Wait 3-4 days, can show up after 3 days d/t mild allergic reaction)
- Symptoms: Skin rash, GI tract discomfort, or respiratory difficulty
- Discontinue its use before going on to the next food
- Will be able to introduce 2 or more foods per week
- Try fortified rice cereal, wheat - containing cereal is last (a common offender)
Milk production during breastfeeding – how does mother’s milk changes to suit infant’s growth? How much milk production? What may stop milk production?
- a mother should breastfeed for at least 6 months (the longer, the better)
- If the baby doesn’t demand for breast milk the production will lower.Depends on the demand.
List nutrient characteristics of breast milk and colostrum
- colostrum: “premilk” contains antibodies from the mother’s blood
- breast milk contains immune factors — antibodies
- Protection against infection which the mother has build immunity too
- Fewer allergic rx (asthma, wheezing, and skin rash)
what are the % of children eating a poor diet
~81% of children eating a poor diet
Mental development, IQ, hyperactivity, apathy and link to nutrition/malnutrition
Nutrition is critical to normal brain development. Malnourishment at age 3 candemonstrate diminished mental capacities at age 11. Nutrient deficiencies can cause physical and behavioral symptoms such as lower IQ scores. May be labeled hyperactive, depressed, or unlikeable
what are Food jags?
Consecutive days of eating only 1-2 favorite foods
Lead Poisoning – problems with children
can cause Mental, behavioral, and learning problems
Food Allergy vs. Food Intolerance
- Food allergy: is a response to an antigen where antibodies are formed and histamine is released. It is an immune reaction to the antigen that causes inflammation
- Food intolerance: reaction to food or additive that does not involve an immune reaction
How to appropriately feed a child, children’s feeding priorities
- Suggest, rather than force, that a child try a small amount of new foods at the beginning of a meal when the child is hungry
- Offer the child samples of new foods that adults are enjoying to stimulate the childʼs natural curiosity
- little children prefer small portions of food serves at little tables
concepts of world hunger (amt of people suffering from malnutrition)
More than billion people living in the poorest developing nations suffer chronic food insufficiency, hungry severe malnutrition white their neighbors are food secure or even over fed.
Current food production trends
- emergency food aid
Famine: Widespread malnutrition and starvation in a particular area due to a shortage of food, usually caused by drought, flood, earthquake, war, or other catastrophic event that disrupt food production and distribution.(is acute and unpredictable)
- a chronic, daily event directly caused by a lack of food.
- have no way when it started or when it’s going to end
- it’s a way of survival or living
the inability to meet one’s basic economic needs
International Poverty Line
around $1/day (World Bank, 2009)
production of crops to meet the needs of those who produce them (as opposed to market or cash-cropping)
Differences between organic vs. conventional foods and agricultural systems
- organic: Natural way to produce food; farmers will plant a variety of plants together to promote biodiversity and ward off pests and pathogens
- conventional: Chemicals used to maintain plants; protect diseases, pests; Risk from pesticides
List reasons for world hunger
- Uneven distribution of food resources
- Unequal global agricultural competition
- Lack of education
- Political turmoil
The global environment – Environmental Degradation and Environmentally-friendly approaches
- environmental degradation: Water contamination/lack of water = reduced availability of food; Can leave people vulnerable to hunger; Climate Change
- environmental solution (friendly): Shop “carless” and plan to make fewer shopping trips; Choose foods that are low on the food chain more often; Less demand of meat = less supply = safe water
Dirty Dozen & Clean 15
- Dirty Dozen: fruits and vegetables that are sprayed with pesticides (usually food where you can eat the skin)
- Clean 15: are grown organically or not as exposed to pesticides (usually peel-able fruits & vegs)
Caffeine and athletic performance.
Caffeine stimulates the brain and contributes to clear thinking and concentration. Theyare helpful. It reduces fatigue/performance decline.
What is the meaning of the USP symbol on supplements?
USO evaluates the supplement for quality, purity, and potency. USP on a supplementlabel means that the supplement went through rigorous testing and auditing criteria and was successful in order to receive the verified USP mark. It indicates that the vitamins are safe, have consistent quality, and contain exact ingredients in potency and amount as listed on the label. You get what you paid for.
Grass-fed vs. corn-fed meat – what is the difference?
- Grass fed meat is more nutritious, containing vitamin a, vitamin e, and micronutrients.
- Corn-fed meat ate an unnatural diet because those animals were most likely given drugs and hormones to grow faster and antibiotics to survive unsanitary living conditions.