Biology-Ch 9 & 10

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  1. What is genetics?
    The study of the science of heredity.
  2. Who is the monk who is considered the father of genetics?
    Gregor Mendel
  3. What does Psalm 139:13 say?
    "For you created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother's womb."
  4. According to Jeremiah 29:11, God has a _______ for your life.
  5. How many chromosomes in human cells?

    Human gametes?
    46 chromosomes

    23 gametes
  6. What are gametes?
    Sex cells
  7. Know your chromosome structure:
    -sister chromosomes
    -duplicated and unduplicated chromosome
    See drawings
  8. What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction?
    Asexual - one parent provides all genetic material and produces exact replica

    Sexual - two parents provide genetic material that combines and forms a unique being
  9. What are the 4 phases of mitosis and what happens in each?
    • Prophase - appear
    • Metaphase - middle
    • Anaphase - away
    • Telophase - two identical cells
  10. What is the cell cycle?
    The cycle of the cell from "birth" until it reproduces itself
  11. What happens in interphase?
    DNA is duplicated
  12. What part of interphase is the DNA replicated?
  13. What does the blue chickens from a black chicken and a white chicken show?
    That the blue gene was recessive in both parents.
  14. What does a Punnet square show?
    The possible genetic combinations.
  15. What is it when two alleles are the same?


  16. What is a karyotype?

    Recognize what it looks like.
    Display of the 46 chromosomes in the cells of an individual.
  17. What chromosomes determine gender?

    What pair are they?
    Sex chromosomes (X & Y)

    Female: XX      Male:  XY
  18. What is the end result of mitosis? (cells)

    Meiosis? (cells)
    Two diploid daughter cells.

    Four haploid daughter cells
  19. Mendel used cross pollination and it is still used today.  How does the method of cross-pollination work?
    Sperm from the pollen of one flower fertilizes the eggs in the flower of a different plant.
  20. What are homologous chromosomes?
    Two chromosomes of each matching pair, one from mom and one from dad.
  21. What is crossing over?

    What phase does it occur in?
    Occurs when there is an exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes

    Occurs in Prophase 1.
  22. What is genetic recombination?
    Crossing over that produces a new combination of genetic information from different parents.
  23. What law is when two alleles separate into gametes?
    Law of Segregation
  24. Dd is heterozygous or homozygous?
  25. A recessive allele is represented by an uppercase or lowercase letter?
    Lowercase letter
  26. What are the 3 major reasons cell divide?
    • Repair
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
  27. What type of tumor is cancerous?
  28. Be able to give the definition of cancer and what happens to the DNA at the cellular level.
    When cells divide and grow out of control/ the DNA mutates
  29. What are 3 known causes of cancer?
    • Radiation
    • Bacteria/viruses
    • Chemicals
  30. What does metastasize mean?

    How does this happen from the start of one cancer cell?
    To spread.

    Blood vessels form to bring nutrients to the cancer cell, then it can break off and spread by way of the bloodstream.
  31. How is height determined?
    Polygenic inheritance and nutrition.
  32. How many alleles for blood type?

    What are the blood types?
    Three, but each person has only two.

    A, B, AB, O
  33. What is codominance?
    When a heterozygous gene expresses BOTH alleles
  34. What do you call any gene located on the sex (gender) chromosomes?
    Sex-linked genes
  35. Be able to do Punnett square problems.

    Be able to do a dihybrid cross for sure.
    Punnett Squares on Notes from class

    Especially a dihybrid cross.
Card Set:
Biology-Ch 9 & 10
2015-12-12 23:09:24
9th freshman biology semester

Biology exam study guide semester 1 chapters 9 and 10
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