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Scalar
Quantity that represents only magnitude (time, temperature, volume).

Vector
Quantity that represents magnitude and direction.

Displacement (s)
Distance and direction of a body's movement (airplaine flies east 100 nm)

Velocity (V)
Speed and direction, rate or change (airplane flies south 400 knots).

Speed
Scalar equal to magnitude of velocity vector.

Acceleration (a)
Rate and direction of a body's change of velocity.

Force (F)
Push or pull exerted on a body (1000 lbs of thrust pushes jet through the sky).

Mass (m)
Quantity of molecular material that comprises an object.

Volume (v)
amount of space occupied by an object.

Density (p)
Mass per unit volume. (p) = mass/volume.

weight (W)
force with which mass is attracted toward center of earthy by gravity


Moment (M)
created when a force is applied at some distance from an axis or fulcrum, it tends to produce rotation about that point. Moment is a vector quantity equal to a force (F) times the distance from the point of rotation that is perpendicular to the force. Perpendicular distance is called moment arm.

Work (W)
 Done when force acts on a body and moves it. It is a scalar quantity equal to the force (F) times the distance of displacement(s).
 W=FxS

Power (P)
 Rate of doing work or work done per unit of time.
 P=W/t

Energy
Scalar measure of a body's capacity to do work. Two types of energy: Potential & Kinetic. Energy can't be created or destroyed, but may be transformed from one form to another. This principle is called conservation of energy. The equation is TE=PE+KE

Potential Energy (PE)
 Ability of a body to do work because of gravity (g) and height (h).
 PE= (weight)⊗(height)

Kinetic Energy (KE)
 is the ability of a body to do work because of its motion. It is a function of mass (m) and velocity (V).
 KE = ½ mV²

Work
 work may be performed on a body to change its position and give it potential energy or work may give the body motion so that it has kinetic energy. Under ideal conditions, potential energy (PE) may be completely
 converted to kinetic energy (KE), and vice versa. The kinetic energy (KE) of a glider in forward flight is converted into potential energy (PE) in a climb.

Newton's 1st Law
Law of Equilibrium
"A body at rest tends to remain at rest and a body in motion tends to remain in motion in a straight line at a constant velocity unless acted upon by some unbalanced force."

Newton's 2nd Law
The Law of Acceleration
Law of Acceleration: An unbalanced force (F) acting on a body produces an acceleration (a) in the direction of the force that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass (m) of the body.

Newton's 3 Law:
The Law of Interaction
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction; the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions.

Static Pressure (Ps)
is the pressure particles of air exert on adjacent bodies. Ambient static pressure is equal to the weight of a column of air over a given area. The force of static pressure always acts perpendicular to any surface that the air particles collide with, regardless of whether the air is moving with respect to that surface.

Air Density (p)
Total mass of air particles per unit of volume. Distance between particles increases with altitude.

Temperature (T)
Measure of the average random kinetic energy of air particles.

Average Lapse Rate
temperature decreases at rate of 2°C (3.57°F) per 1000 ft until approximately 36, 000 ft.

Isothermal layer
From 36,000 feet through approximately 66,000 feet, the air remains at a constant −56.5 °C (−69.7 °F).

Humidity
amount of water vapor in the air. As humidity increases air density decreases.

Viscosity (μ)
measure of air's resistance to flow and shearing. Air viscosity increases with an increase in temperature.

Local Speed of Sound
rate at which sound waves travel through a particular air mass. Speed of sound is dependent only on the temp of the air. As temp increases, speed of sound increases.

Sea Level Table

General Gas Law
 Sets relations between 3 properties of air pressure; pressure (P), density (p), and temperature (T).
 P=pRT

Altitudes
geometric height above a given plane of reference.

True altitude
actual height above mean sea level.

Pressure altitude (PA)
height above standard datum plane.

Density Altitude (DA)
altitude in the standard atmosphere where the air density is equal to local air density.

Steady Airflow
exists if at every point in the airflow static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity remain constant over time.

Streamline
Path that air particles follow in steady airflow. In steady airflow, particles do not cross streamline.

Streamtube
impenetrable tube formed by many streamlines. Steamtubes are closed systems.

Continuity equation
p1A1V1 = p2A2V2. Principle of physics that states for fluids, the mass flow rate has the same value at every position along a closed tube.

Bernoulli's Equation
 In a flow of incompressible fluid, the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure along a streamline is constant if gravity and frictional effects are disregarded.
 Pt = Ps+ q
 H=Ps + ½ρV²

Pitot Static System
 Consists of a pitot tube that senses total pressure (H), a static port that senses static pressure (Ps) and a differential pressure gauge.
 q = HPs

Indicated Airspeed
actual instrument indication of dynamic pressure the airplane is exposed to during flight.

Calibrated Airspeed
Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument error.

Equivalent Airspeed (EAS)
the true airspeed at sea level on a standard day that produces the same dynamic pressure as the actual flight condition. It is found by correcting calibrated airspeed for compressibility error.

True Airspeed (TAS)
 is the actual velocity at which an airplane moves though an air mass. It is found by
 correcting equivalent airspeed for the difference between the local air density (ρ) and the density of the air at sea
 level on a standard day (ρ0).
 For constant IAS, TAS will increase approximately three knots for every thousand feet increase in altitude.

Ground Speed
 Airplanes actual speed over the ground
 GS= TASHeadwind
 GS= TAS+Tailwind

Aircraft
Any device used or intended to be used for flight in the air. Normally supported either by the buoyancy of the structure (balloon or dirigible) or by the dynamic reaction of the air against its surfaces (airplane, glider).

Airplane
mechanically driven fixedwing aircraft, heavier than air, which is supported by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. T6B is a singleturboprop engine, two place, pressurized, low wing training aircraft.

5 Components of an Airplane:
Fuselage
Basic structure of airplane to which all other components are attached. T6B is semimonocoque.

5 Components of an Airplane:
Wing
Airfoil attached to fuselage and designed to produce lift. T6B wings are full cantilever since all bracing is internal.

5 Components of an Airplane:
Empennage
Assembly of stabilizing and control surfaces on the tail of an airplane.

5 Components of an Airplane:
Landing Gear
Permits ground taxi operation and assorbs the shock encountered during takeoff and landing. T6B has retractable tricycle landing gear that includes a steerable nose wheel and two main wheels.

5 Components of an Airplane:
Engine
Provides thrust necessary for powered flight. T6B has PT6A68 engine.

Semimonocoque
Modified version of monocoque, having skin, transverse frame members, and stringers, which all share in stress loads and may be readily repaired if damaged.

FullCantilever
Supported at one point only, as in a fullcantilevel wing, or a wing that is entirely internally supported, with no external bracing.

Mean Camber Line (MCL)
locus of points halfway between the upper and lower surfaces, measured perpendicular to the mean camber line itself. The most forward and rearward points of the MCL are the leading edges and trailing edges, respectively.

Chordline
infinitely long, straight line which passes through its leading and trailing edges.

Chord
precise measurement between the leading and trailing edges measured along the chordline.

Root Chord ( )
Chord at wing centerline

Tip Chord ( )
chord at the wing tip

Average Chord (c)
average of every chord from wing root to the wing tip

camber
maximum distance between the mean camber line and the chordline, measured perpendicular to the chordline.

Positive Camber
MCL above the chordline. Produces lift at 0 degrees AoA

Symmetric Airfoil
Zero Camber, which indicates that the MCL and chordline are the same. A symmetric airfoil produces no lift at 0 degrees AoA.

Negative Camber
has MCL below the chordline and will produce negative lift at o degrees AoA.

Aerodynamic Center
point along the chordline around which all changes in the aerodynamic force take place

Wingspan (b)
length of a wing measured from wingtip to wingtip. T6B wingspan is 33'5''

wing area (S)
 apparent surface area of a wing from wingtip to wingtip. S=bc
 Wing area (S)= wingspan (b) x average chord (c)

Taper
 reduction in the chord of an airfoil from root to tip. T6B wings are tapered to reduce weight, improve structural stiffness and reduce wingtip vortices. Taper ratio (λ) is the ratio of the tip chord to the root chord.

Sweep Angle (Λ)
Angle between the lateral axis and a line drawn 25% aft of the leading edge. Wing seep affects life and stall characteristics. T6B wing is swept.

Aspect ratio (AR)
 ratio of the wingspan to the average chord.

Wing Loading (WL)
 ratio of an airplane's weight to the surface area of its wings. There tends to be inverse relationship between aspect ration and wing loading.

Angel of incidence
Angle between the airplane's longitudinal axis and the chordline of the wing.

Dihedral Angle
Angel between the spanwise inclination of the wing and the lateral axis.

Center of Gravity (CG)
Point at which all weight is considered to be concentrated and about which all forces and moments are measured.

Longitudinal Axis
Passes from the nose to the tail of the airplane. Movement around this axis is roll.

Lateral Axis
Passes from wingtip to wingtip. Movement around this axis is pitch.

Vertical Axis
Passes vertically though the center of gravity. Movement around this axis is yaw.

Pitch Attitude (θ)
Is the angle between an airplanes longitudinal axis and the horizon.

Flight Path
Path described by its center of gravity as it moves through an air mass.

Relative wind
Airflow the airplane experiences as it moves through the air. IT is equal in magnitude and opposite in the direction to the flight path.

Angle of Attack (α)
angel between the relative wind and the chordline of an airfoil

Spanwise flow
Airflow that travels along the span of the wing, parallel to the leading edge. Produces no lift, not accelerated over the wing.

Chordwise Flow
air flowing at right angels to the leading edge of an airfoil. Since chordwise flow is only flow that accelerates over a wing, it is only airflow that produces life.

