Biology-Ch 7 & 8
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You are made up of how many cells?
So you are a cell and a ______ as Jesus states.
- 37 trillion
What does Mathew 10:28 talk about?
"And do not fear those who kill the body, but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both body and soul in hell."
Be able to recognize definition for irreducible complexity.
You cannot reduce any part of a cell and expect it to work.
Be able to describe the basics of evolution theory.
First life began as simple atoms combining & recombining to form larger molecules. Larger molecules began forming through natural selection and chance variations to become the first living cell. The process of change continued to give us al the diverse life forms we have today, and eventually apes into men.
Be able to describe the basics of creation theory.
God began life on Day 3 with the plants (and the cells that made them up). Then life continued to be made on Day 6 with man (and the cells and soul that made them up).
What is the equation for cellular respiration in humans and animals?
Which are the reactants?
Which are the products?
+ 6 H2
0 + ATP
- Reactants: glucose + oxygen
- Products: carbon dioxide + water + energy
What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration?
Be able to summarize each.
- Glycolysis (breakdown or splitting a glucose molecule)
- Krebs cycle (finishes the breakdown of pyretic acid to CO2 and ATP)
- Electron Transport Chain (major ATP producer)
Give the products of the 3 stages of cellular respiration.
- Glycolysis products: 2 ATP, 2 Pyruvic acids
- Krebs Cycle products: 2 ATP, CO2
- Electron Transport Chain products: 34 ATP, H2O
Where do each of the 3 stages of cellular respiration occur?
- Glycolysis: just outside the mitochondria in the cytoplasm
- Krebs Cycle: in the mitochondria
- Electron Transport Chain: in the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Is cellular respiration aerobic or anaerobic?
What do those terms mean?
Aerobic requires oxygen.
Anaerobic does not require oxygen.
Why does our body produce lactic acid sometimes?
Is it an aerobic or anaerobic process?
When little oxygen is available, fermentation allows glucose to be converted to lactic acid.
It is an anaerobic process.
How is energy released from an ATP molecule?
Water breaks the bond between phosphates by hydrolysis and then a phosphate group is pulled away, releasing energy.
What does an ATP molecule look like?
What does it stand for?
What 3 types of work does ATP provide energy to do?
- Chemical work (links amino acids to form proteins)
- Mechanical work (muscles contract)
- Transport work (transport across membranes)
What is energy?
The ability to perform work.
How do we measure how much energy something has?
Measured in calories (amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water by 1° Celsius)
All life depends on the ________.
What is nuclear fusion in the sun?
How does the sun get its energy?
- -Hydrogen atoms fuse (stick together) into a helium atom.
- -Fusion of nuclei with lower masses than iron releases energy.
What is the famous equation of Einstein's that refers to nuclear fusion?
E = mc2
What are the energy differences in short and long waves?
Short waves = high energy
Long waves = low energy
Be able to understand the photosynthesis diagram.
Know the reactants and products.
Sun + CO2
O ⇒ C6
energy + carbon dioxide + water ⇒
- glucose + oxygen
Where does photosynthesis occur?
Where in the chloroplast is the pigment found?
Define a pigment.
Why do plants appear green?
- A Chemical compound that determines a substance's color.
- Absorbs all other colors and reflects green.
Why do leaves fall off the trees?
Trees stop producing chlorophyll. The valves connecting leaves to trees close, cutting off nutrients, causing them to fall off.
How does the carbon cycle work?
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is in the air; plants take in the CO2 (inorganic) from the atmosphere and convert it into glucose (organic) through photosynthesis; a cow eats the grass and converts the glucose back into CO2 through cellular respiration. Then the CO2 molecules are released from the animal back into the atmosphere and the cycle begins again. Carbon atoms go round and round.
Can carbon be considered inorganic?
Carbon dioxide (no hydrogen)
CO2 + Sun + H2O ⇒ glucose
What is the greenhouse effect?
When carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atomsphere (air) trap heat that would otherwise escape into space (keeps Earth's climate warm enough for living things)
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