Biology- Ch 5 & 6

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  1. If biosphere is largest organization, then ecosystem, what things come next as we get smaller? (pg 1 of notes)
    • Organisms
    • Cells
    • Atoms
    • Quarks
  2. Psalm 139:13-15.

    Know generally what it's about.
    "For you created my inmost being, you knit me together in my mother's womb; I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made; your works are wonderful, I know that full well."
  3. Name one scientific thought of the past that was wrong, even though the right thought had already been written down in the Bible
    • The Earth is flat.
    • The Bible states He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth.
  4. What is an organic molecule?
    A carbon-based molecule
  5. Why is carbon so unique?
    How many bonds can it make?
    It has 4 valence electrons, allowing for 4 bonds.
  6. What is a hydrocarbon?
    Organic molecules of hydrogen and carbon.
  7. What is a functional group?
    When a certain group of atoms interact in a predictable way.

    Example: Hydroxyl group or amino group
  8. Write the formula for hydroxyl group and amino group.
    • Hydroxyl group: OH
    • Amino group: NH2
  9. What is a polymer?
    What is a monomer?
    • Polymer: When your cells link monomers together into long chains
    • Monomer: one molecule unit
  10. What are the 4 large organic macromolecules or polymers?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
  11. What reaction happened when we linked Elmer's glue monomers together?
    Dehydration (loss of water)
  12. What do carbohydrates do for your cell?
    Provide energy
  13. What are the 3 major carbohydrates?
    • Monosaccharides (one sugar)
    • Disaccharides (double sugars)
    • Polysaccharides (multi sugars)
  14. What do proteins do for your cell?
    Perform most functions in the cells.

    Example: speed up reactions per catalyst enzyme
  15. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
    • Saturated: have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms (olive oil, avocados)
    • Unsaturated: have less number of hydrogen atoms
  16. What are chains of amino acids called?
  17. How many amino acids are in the body?
  18. What does a catalyst do?
    Speeds up a reaction
  19. How does an enzyme react with a substrate? (We drew this as well.)
    • A substrate binds to an enzyme in an active site.
    • Example: sucrose
  20. Write the 3 parts of the cell theory.
    • All living things are made of cells.
    • Cells are the basic unit of structure & function in living things.
    • All cells come from pre-existing cells.
  21. Know the diagram of a cell you drew in your notes or p. 112.  Your cell project should be helping you with this!
    Image Upload 1
  22. What organelle:
    Transports things around cell?
    Makes proteins?
    RMT-receives, modifies, transports?
    Makes energy-ATP?
    Allows support and flexibility?
    Holds water?
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum (transports)
    • Ribosomes (makes proteins)
    • Golgi apparatus (RMT)
    • Mitochondria (makes energy)
    • Cytoskeleton (support & flexibility)
    • Vacuole (holds water)
  23. Why does the mitochondria have a folded inner membrane?
    Increases the surface area to maximize the production of ATP energy.
  24. What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
    Humans have which and bacteria have which?
    • Eukaryotic: cell with a nucleus and organelles enclosed in a membrane (Humans)
    • Prokaryotic: cell with NO nucleus and NO membrane-bound organelles (Bacteria)
  25. Under eukaryotic cells, name the differences between plant and animal cells; recognize the cells.
    • Plant Cell:
    • -cell wall & cell membrane
    • -chloroplasts
    • -large vacuole
    • -store food as starch
    • Animal cell:
    • -cell membrane only
    • -NO chloroplasts
    • -small vacuoles
    • -store food as glycogen
  26. Describe the cell membrane. What is it made of?
    Lets only certain things in and out.
    What is hydrophilic on the membrane?
    Draw it.
    • Phospholipid with bilayer embedded in it.
    • Selective permeability (allows certain things in & out)
    • Hydrophilic = phosphate heads
    • Hydrophobic = fatty acid tails
    • See drawing in notes.
  27. Diffusion movement is _____ to _____, this is PASSIVE TRANSPORT = NO _____ required.
    • high to low
    • no energy required
  28. Facilitated diffusion is using the _____ in the membrane to pass certain things through.
  29. What are the 3 proteins that help the cell membrane?
    • Carrier proteins (carry substances in & out)
    • Channel proteins (channel solutes like water in & out)
    • Glyco proteins (signal & communicate messages)
  30. Osmosis is the diffusion of _____.
  31. Active transport requires _____ to move things opposite (_____ to _____).
    • Energy
    • low to high
  32. Endocytosis - move _____ cell
  33. Exocytosis - move _____ of cell,
Card Set:
Biology- Ch 5 & 6
2015-12-13 21:44:54
biology semseter review

Biology Chapter 5 & 6 semester review
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