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If biosphere is largest organization, then ecosystem, what things come next as we get smaller? (pg 1 of notes)
Know generally what it's about.
"For you created my inmost being, you knit me together in my mother's womb; I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made; your works are wonderful, I know that full well."
Name one scientific thought of the past that was wrong, even though the right thought had already been written down in the Bible
- The Earth is flat.
- The Bible states He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth.
What is an organic molecule?
A carbon-based molecule
Why is carbon so unique?
How many bonds can it make?
It has 4 valence electrons, allowing for 4 bonds.
What is a hydrocarbon?
Organic molecules of hydrogen and carbon.
What is a functional group?
When a certain group of atoms interact in a predictable way.
Example: Hydroxyl group or amino group
Write the formula for hydroxyl group and amino group.
- Hydroxyl group: OH
- Amino group: NH2
What is a polymer?
What is a monomer?
- Polymer: When your cells link monomers together into long chains
- Monomer: one molecule unit
What are the 4 large organic macromolecules or polymers?
- Nucleic acids
What reaction happened when we linked Elmer's glue monomers together?
Dehydration (loss of water)
What do carbohydrates do for your cell?
What are the 3 major carbohydrates?
- Monosaccharides (one sugar)
- Disaccharides (double sugars)
- Polysaccharides (multi sugars)
What do proteins do for your cell?
Perform most functions in the cells.
Example: speed up reactions per catalyst enzyme
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
- Saturated: have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms (olive oil, avocados)
- Unsaturated: have less number of hydrogen atoms
What are chains of amino acids called?
How many amino acids are in the body?
What does a catalyst do?
Speeds up a reaction
How does an enzyme react with a substrate? (We drew this as well.)
- A substrate binds to an enzyme in an active site.
- Example: sucrose
Write the 3 parts of the cell theory.
- All living things are made of cells.
- Cells are the basic unit of structure & function in living things.
- All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Know the diagram of a cell you drew in your notes or p. 112. Your cell project should be helping you with this!
Transports things around cell?
RMT-receives, modifies, transports?
Allows support and flexibility?
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum (transports)
- Ribosomes (makes proteins)
- Golgi apparatus (RMT)
- Mitochondria (makes energy)
- Cytoskeleton (support & flexibility)
- Vacuole (holds water)
Why does the mitochondria have a folded inner membrane?
Increases the surface area to maximize the production of ATP energy.
What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Humans have which and bacteria have which?
- Eukaryotic: cell with a nucleus and organelles enclosed in a membrane (Humans)
- Prokaryotic: cell with NO nucleus and NO membrane-bound organelles (Bacteria)
Under eukaryotic cells, name the differences between plant and animal cells; recognize the cells.
- Plant Cell:
- -cell wall & cell membrane
- -large vacuole
- -store food as starch
- Animal cell:
- -cell membrane only
- -NO chloroplasts
- -small vacuoles
- -store food as glycogen
Describe the cell membrane. What is it made of?
Lets only certain things in and out.
What is hydrophilic on the membrane?
- Phospholipid with bilayer embedded in it.
- Selective permeability (allows certain things in & out)
- Hydrophilic = phosphate heads
- Hydrophobic = fatty acid tails
- See drawing in notes.
Diffusion movement is _____ to _____, this is PASSIVE TRANSPORT = NO _____ required.
- high to low
- no energy required
Facilitated diffusion is using the _____ in the membrane to pass certain things through.
What are the 3 proteins that help the cell membrane?
- Carrier proteins (carry substances in & out)
- Channel proteins (channel solutes like water in & out)
- Glyco proteins (signal & communicate messages)
Osmosis is the diffusion of _____.
Active transport requires _____ to move things opposite (_____ to _____).
Endocytosis - move _____ cell
Exocytosis - move _____ of cell,