Midterm Review

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  1. What is the first known surgical procedure that was believed to be used by early cultures to release evil spirits from a person?
    Trephination
  2. Who set up the first psychological laboratory in 1879?
    Wilhelm Wundt
  3. Who is considered to be the father of psychology?
    Wilhelm Wundt
  4. Who developed the theory of structuralism?
    Wilhelm Wundt
  5. Who published the first psychology textbook in 1890?
    William James
  6. What was the name of the first psychology textbook?
    "The Principles of Psychology"
  7. Who developed the theory of functionalism?
    William James
  8. How did the theory of functionalism originate?
    he developed this theory by examining how the structures Wundt identified functioned in our lives
  9. What refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors  that usually produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce discomfort and restore balance?
    cognitive dissonance
  10. Francesca’s favorable attitude toward the death penalty began to change when she was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a public speaking class. Her attitude adjustment is best explained by what theory?
    Cognitive dissonance
  11. Kevin and Kristin have a fulfilling marital relationship because they often confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of ___-_______.
    self-disclosure
  12. Titchnener was a proponent to _______.
    structuralism
  13. Piaget studied ______ development.
    cognitive
  14. Who is credited as the founder of behaviorism?
    John Watson
  15. Who argued that knowledge comes from observation and what we know comes from experience?
    John Locke
  16. Who believed that were born without knowledge, tabula rasa (blank state)?
    John Locke
  17. _______ and _______ believed that our ideas are innate.
    Socrates and Plato
  18. ______ ______ was an assistant for Watson in his "Little Albert Experiment".
    Rosalie Raynor
  19. Who was the first female president of the American Psychological Association and a student of William James?
    Mary Calkins
  20. The brain's sensory switchboard
    thalamus
  21. located at the top of the brain stem, it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
    thalamus
  22. the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
    fetus
  23. the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
    monism
  24. a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus
    reflex
  25. Which view of psychology declined due to the unreliability of introspection?
    structuralism
  26. In Piagot's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logicallly about abstract concepts is known as ____ ____ ____.
    formal operational stage
  27. a process in which patients carefully self-analyzes a particular thought or sensation
    introspection
  28. What school of psychology focused on the adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions?
    Functionalism
  29. What school of psychology deals with the component elements of sensory experience?
    Structuralism
  30. What is the surgical destruction on the part of the brain called?
    lesion
  31. What are the three basic parts of a neuron?
    dendrites, soma (cell body), and the axon
  32. branchlike part of the neuron that receives messages from other cells
    dendrites
  33. the long cable-like extension that transmits electrical pulses from the cell body out to other neurons, glands, or muscles
    axon
  34. a fatty tissue that protects the axon and speeds up the transmission of messages
    myelin sheath
  35. what gland is known as the master gland?
    pituitary gland
  36. What system is known to be the command center because it makes most of our big decisions?
    central nervous system
  37. This part of the brain automatically controls the basic life functions (respiration, digestion, heartbeat, and blood pressure).
    medulla oblongata
  38. You "gata" have the _____ to survive.
    medulla
  39. The ____ ponders what information to send to the brain and the cerebellum.
    pons
  40. This relays information between the cerebellum and the cerebrum (brain).
    pons
  41. The _______formation regulates out alertness.
    reticular
  42. This regulates alertness and arousal levels; damaging this area results in a coma.
    Reticular Formation
  43. This aids in balance and coordination of movement.
    cerebellum
  44. Sounds like "Sarah Balances"
    cerebellum
  45. This is the oldest part of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord to send and receive information.
    Brain stem/ Lizard brain
  46. This controls smooth body movements.
    Striatum
  47. This serves as the sensory switchboard that relays information to the appropriate area of the brain for processing except for the sense of smell
    thalamus
  48. This regulates hunger, thirst, the flight or fight response, sex drive, and body temperature; maintains homeostasis.
    hypothalamus
  49. Mr. Strachan's _______ was on drive last night because he was hungry.
    hypothalamus
  50. This part of the brain is associated with fear and aggression.
    amygdala
  51. This is an area of the brain that is associated with emotion, behavior, and longterm memory formation.
    Limbic system
  52. What four parts of the brain makes up the limbic system?
    hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, and amygdala
  53. This structure transmits smell from the nose to the brains
    olfactory bulb
  54. The old factory ____!
    smells
  55. This is responsible for the production and distribution of hormones throughout the body
    pituitary gland
  56. This controls the formation of new memories and has the largest concentration of acetylcholine.
    hippocampus
  57. What disease is caused by the absence of the acetylcholine? Which part of the brain is most likely to be damaged?
    Alzheimer's disease; hippocampus
  58. This is located at the back of the brain stem and assists in balance and the coordination of voluntary movements
    midbrain
  59. What is it called when specific clusters of neurons form together to perform a specific function?
    functional specialization
  60. Which language cortex gives us the ability to read aloud?
    angular gyros
  61. Which language cortex gives us the ability to speak?
    Broca's Area
  62. Which language cortex gives us the ability to comprehend language?
    Wernicke's Area
  63. The space between the dendrite and the axon terminal
    synapse or synaptic gap
  64. This contains small sacs called synaptic vesicles that play an important role in transmitting signals from one cell to the next
    axon terminal
  65. the visible part of the ear
    pinna
  66. a tiny bone that passes vibrations from the hammer to the stirrup
    anvil
  67. a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled inner ear structure that is lined with cilia (tiny hairs) that move when vibrated and cause a nerve impulse to form
    cochlea
  68. a thin membrane that vibrate when sound waves reach it
    eardrum
  69. a tube that connects the middle ear to the back of the nose; it equalizes the pressure between the middle ear and the air outside.
    Eustachian tube
  70. a tiny bone structure that passes vibrations from the eardrum to the anvi
    hammer
  71. the smallest bone in the human body
    stirrup
  72. these carry electrochemical signals to the brain
    nerves
  73. a tiny U-shaped bone that passes vibrations from the stirrup to the cochlea
    stirrup
  74. three loops of fluid-filled tubes that are attached to the cochlea in the inner ear
    semicircular canals
  75. part of the ear that helps maintain balance
    semicircular canals
  76. the tube through which sound travels to the eardrum
    outer ear canal
  77. the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enter
    pupil
  78. the muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
    iris
  79. the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
    retina
Author:
studiousstudent
ID:
313181
Card Set:
Midterm Review
Updated:
2015-12-15 04:34:42
Tags:
psych
Folders:
psychology
Description:
almost everything lol
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