pl sc 355 final

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  1. strengths of barley
    • well adapted to long cool days
    • early maturity
    • tolerant to drought, cold weather, saline soils
  2. barley weaknesses
    • weak straw 
    • not tolerant to heat
    • relatively non-winter hardy
  3. uses of barley in canada
    • feed livestock 55%
    • export 20%
    • malting/distilling 20%
    • seed 2%
    • human food/nutraceuticals 0.01%
  4. what is malting barley?
    grain that is partially germinated, allows access to seed's resources for brewing
  5. chitting
    when the grain sprouts, ex. green malt
  6. changes in barley endosperm during malting
    • 1. complete destruction of endosperm walls
    • 2. breakdown of the protein matrix
    • 3. starch for granules made available for degradation by enzymes
    • 4. formation of hydrolytic enzymes to carry out these changes
  7. basic requirements for malting
    • water
    • oxygen
    • barley
  8. ploidy of einkorn wheat?
    diploid (A)
  9. ploidy of emmer and durum wheat?
    tetraploids (AB)
  10. ploidy of bread wheats?
    hexaploids (ABD)
  11. characteristics of CWRS
    • 83% of break wheat production in western canada
    • hard red wheat
    • superior milling and baking qualities
    • high protein (~13.6%)
  12. traits for modern wheat breeding
    • shorter
    • reduced lodging
    • higher yield
    • higher HI
    • more kernels per spike
    • disease resistance
  13. older cultivar wheat breeding
    • selected before widespread use of synthetic inputs
    • better suited to low-input systems
  14. gluten
    protein found in wheat, oats, rye, spelt, etc.
  15. primary wheat grading factors (5)
    • test weight
    • varietal purity
    • hardness
    • soundness
    • foreign matter (seeds, other crops, disease, etc.)
  16. PSI
    • particle size index, measure of grain hardness
    • low value=hard wheat
  17. factors affecting choice of wheat type (5)
    • tradition
    • availability
    • cost
    • politics
    • want low alpha-amylase activity
  18. wheat breeding challenges and concerns (6)
    • durums - quality aspects
    • maintaining quality in all wheat classes in Canada
    • Delivery around the world
    • Canadian avg. protein levels may be falling despite dry years
    • swing to semi-dwarfs
    • minimum/reduced tillage issues
  19. breeding challenges for canadian durum (5)
    • lowered cadmium levels
    • better sprouting resistance needed to achieve lower alpha-amylase
    • improved rust resistance desireable
    • higher yields desireable w/ improved quality and straw strength
    • offer improved quality to export markets in order to maintain existing share of the world mkt
  20. advantages of winter wheat (9, pick 5)
    • uses early moisture and heat units
    • out-competes early weeds
    • matures earlier
    • avoids disease
    • less land to be managed in spring
    • ready market
    • wind and water erosion control over winter
    • less herbicide
    • duck habitat
  21. disadvantages of winter wheat
    • winter kill, snow mould 
    • need disease resistant and winter hardy varieties
  22. causes of winter kill (6)
    • ground leaves/tissue shear (more eastern canada)
    • smothering: ice sheets (O2 deprivation)
    • drought/desiccations following hardening caused by a very cold temperatures
    • thawing/freezing
    • hard frost prior to hardening energy reserves for winter
    • disease: snow mould
  23. scientific names for snow mould? (2)
    • Fusarium nivale
    • Sclerotinia borealis
  24. Top 10 reasons to grow winter wheat in Western Canada
    • good fit with conservation farming systems
    • more efficient water utilization
    • avoids wheat midge damage due to early heading (no insecticide)
    • good weed competition (no spraying)
    • no wild oat spraying reduces selection pressure for herbicide resisitance
    • redused risk of fusarium head blight
    • avoids seeding problems on wet springs?
    • lower energy requirements
    • less disturbance to wildlife
    • high yield potential (longer growing season)
  25. Main difference bw fall rye and spring rye?
    spring rye doesn't need vernalization
  26. uses of fall rye
    • feed for animals
    • industry (rye whiskey, flour in bread baking)
    • erosion control
    • weed control (good for organic systems)
    • good crop to follow early maturing cereal or oilseed in crop rotations
  27. main disease of rye? and control of it
    • ergot (Claviceps purpurea)
    • control: clean seed, proper rotation, burying trash
  28. how to seed fall rye
    • in weed free stubble or on firmly prepared seed bed
    • stubble helps w winter survival
  29. practical results of pulse crops (5)
    • reduced N inputs in the pulse crop
    • return of N-rich residues
    • increased cereal yields due to N and rotational effects
    • avg cereal yield increases by ~20%
    • increased economic return (in the long term)
  30. specialty crops (7)
    • pulses
    • specialty oilseeds, cereals, forages
    • spices
    • medicinals/nutraceuticals
    • herbs
    • fibre crops
    • essential oils
  31. crop diversification
    expanding the number of crops in a region, in the hopes of increasing overall productivity and marketability
  32. Incentives for crop diversification (5)
    • low conventional crop prices
    • innovation
    • value adding
    • environmental protection
    • biodiversity/rotational effects
  33. barriers for crop diversification (5)
    • business challenges
    • research and development
    • production problems
    • quality and processing
    • policy issues
  34. "bad fats"
    • saturated: raise bad cholesterol
    • trans: modified, cause hardening, increase bad cholesterol and decrease good cholesterol
  35. "good fats"
    • monounsaturated fats: lower bad cholesterol, help control blood glucose
    • polyunsaturated fats: better for you, have omega-3 and omega-6
  36. omega-3
    protects against heart attacks and strokes, lower bad cholesterol
  37. omega-6
    important for brain health, growth and development in babies
  38. 4 main canola production systems
    • conventional
    • clearfield
    • roundup ready
    • liberty link
  39. advantages of herbicide-resistant canola for producers
    • better weed control
    • reduced herbicide applications
    • better yields
  40. environmental factors for canola: moisture
    • cool season crop
    • needs good moisture esp. during germination
    • less water efficient than wheat and barley bc cost of producing oil is higher
  41. environmental factors for canola: temperature
    • base temp: 1°C
    • optimum temp: 21-25°C
    • min. soil temp for germination: ~2°C
  42. growing degree days needed for B. napus
  43. growing degree days needed for B. rapa
  44. increased seeding depth for canola can result in:
    • reduced emergence
    • reduced root, seedling, plant growth
    • increased seedling disease
    • reduced yields
  45. canola pest management key tools (4)
    • rotation
    • variety choice (ex. disease and herbicide resistance)
    • pesticides
    • agronomic practices
Card Set:
pl sc 355 final
2015-12-16 00:01:49
cereals pulses oilseeds

final exam
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