Final Study Guide (pg.3-5) Natural History of Georgia

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  1. Describe costal plains forests physiography, climate, soils and key characteristics.

    • Low relief at 15-35m
    • Old marine terraces extending inland
    • Soils sandy alluvium
    • Upper demarcation by “fall line”
    • Land area stable although historically exposure varied with glaciation.


    • warm, annual mean T ~19C
    • hotter and more humid  than Oak Hickory
    • 240 - 330 frost free days
    • often high rainfall, but high evapotranspiration


    • Marine deposits (sand, silt, clay)n
    • Often weathered prior to deposition -> nutrient poor
    • Some calcareous or phosphate deposits

    key characteristics

    • Fires frequent & determine species compositionn>> lightning than any other inland part of US
    • >> # evergreen species than any eastern forest
    • High variation water availability -- cypress swamp (permanent water) to sand hills (low water availability) à  high mesohabitat diversity
  2. What are the key characteristics of Sandhills and Upland Forest?
    • Pine flatwoods
    • Open savanna appearance
    • Longleaf, mesic sites (Fire common, 1-3 yr)
    • Slash, very mesic sites (less fire, more common moving S)
    • Pond pine (Pinus serotina), very wet to hydric
    • On dry sand hills sites
    • Dwarf longleaf
    • Many oaks: turkey oak (Quecus laevis), Sand post oak (Q. stellata var. margaretta); bluejack oak (Q. cinerea); sand live oak (Q. geninata)
  3. What are key characteristics of Longleaf pine forests?
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  4. What are key characteristics of Moist Slope Forests?
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  5. What is a Pocosin?
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  6. What is a Bayhead? What trees dominate them?
  7. Soils are not distinct but vegetation dominated by broad leaf evergreens such as bays
  8. What is a cypress swamp?
    • Bald cypress, Taxodium distichum
    • Water tupelo Nyssa aquatic
  9. What is a Maritime forest?
    Dominated by live oak
  10. What is the greenhouse effect?
    the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be in the absence of its atmosphere. If a planet's atmosphere contains radiatively active gases (i.e., greenhouse gases) the atmosphere radiates energy in all directions. Part of this radiation is directed towards the surface, warming it.
  11. What are greenhouse gasses? (definition and examples)
    Gasses that trap, absorb and emit heat (heat =thermal radiation)

    • Carbon dioxide (carbon footprint)
    • Methane
    • Nitrous oxide
    • Ozone
    • Water vapor
  12. How have greenhouse gas concentrations changed over the past 300 years?
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  13. What are 4 strategies to reduce greenhouse gasses?
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  14. What is Landscape Fragmentation?
    Breaking up continuous habitat into smaller non-continuous patches

    Major factor affecting biodiversity
  15. What are possible negative consequences of fragmentation?
    • 1. fragment smaller than home range individuals
    • 2. Habitat fragment may be too small support populations
    • 3. Habitat fragments make populations more susceptible to catastrophic mortality
    • 4. Habitat fragments reduce genetic variation in population inbreeding, reduced fitness
    • 5. Reduced size of habitat fragments make populations more susceptible to predator/parasite mortality
  16. What are possible solutions to fragmentation?
    • Work preserve large areas forest/river
    • Work so that corridors can be created to reconnect habit patches
    • Translocate organisms remedy genetic problems
  17. Which organism used to be diverse in Georgia and now is highly endangered?
    freshwater mussel fauna
  18. What is Biodiversity? What do biodiversity studies examine?
    • Number of species in a habitat
    • Ecosystem function (primary production, nutrient processing, etc.)
    • Competition
    • Predation
  19. How does biodiversity affect ecosystems (2 mechanisms)?
    • Keystone species
    • Species richness
  20. What is niche complementarity?
    explanatory mechanism; positive relationship between biodiversity and level of primary production
  21. Species richness is positively correlated with what 4 functional aspects of ecosystems?
    • plant productivity
    • stability production
    • processing efficiency essential plant nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus)
    • toxicant bioprocessing
  22. What are some reasons to conserve biodiversity?
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  23. What are the main goals of sustainable tourism?
    • Economic 
    • Environmental
    •  Socio-cultural
  24. What are some positive and negative economic impacts of nature based tourism?
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  25. What is the economic impact of nature tourism in Georgia?
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  26. What are some positive and negative socio-cultural impacts of nature based tourism?
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  27. What are some positive and negative environmental impacts of nature based tourism?
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  28. What are some strategies to reduce your carbon footprint?
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Final Study Guide (pg.3-5) Natural History of Georgia
2015-12-14 23:20:56
StateofGeorgia UniversityofGeorgia

Final Study Guide (pg.3-5) Natural History of Georgia
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