Pharm Drugs to Know

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  1. 2-PAM
    • Restores cholinesterase
    • restore acetylcholine breakdown
  2. Acetaminophen
    Pain reliever and fever reducer
  3. Acetylcholine
    • Cholinergic Neurotransmitter
    • Binds nicotinic receptors (all ganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic synapses and neuromuscular junction) and muscarinic receptors (parasympathetic effector cells and sweat glands)
  4. ADH (aka vasopressin)
    increases Na and water reabsorption in the collecting ducts in kidney
  5. Albuterol
    • beta 2 agonist
    • bronchodilator (asthma)
  6. Aldosterone
    increases Na and water reabsorption, increase blood volume, increase blood pressure
  7. Alpha methyl DOPA
    • Alpha 2 agonist 
    • acts centrally to lower norepinephrine release
    • lower blood pressure, treat hypertension (especially gestational hypertension)
  8. Alpha methyl tyrosine
    • Sympatholytic
    • inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase, slowing catecholamine synthesis
  9. Amphetamine
    • Sympathomimetic
    • increases norepinephrine release
  10. Angiotensin II
    increases Na and water absorption, vasoconstriction, release of aldosterone, increase blood pressure
  11. Atracurium
    • Nondepolarizing, competitive neuromuscular blocker
    • intermediate duration
  12. Atropine
    • muscarinic antagonist
    • dilates pupils, increases heart rate, reduces secretions
  13. Bradykinin
    • Peptide usually broken down by ACE
    • causes vasodilation but also bronchospasm and unproductive cough
  14. Captopril
    • ACE inhibitor 
    • lowers BP
  15. Carbachol
    • Muscarinic agonist (eye drops)
    • slower onset with more sustained miosis (pupil constriction)
  16. Clonidine
    • Alpha 2 agonist, central effects, reduces norepinephrine release and blood pressure
    • pheochromocytoma test: if norepi is not reduced with Clonidine administration
  17. Cocaine
    sympathomimetic, decreases norepi reuptake
  18. COMT inhibitors
    Inhibits COMT degradation of catecholamines
  19. Diazepam
    benzodiazepine, aka Valium, anti-seizure, muscle relaxant
  20. Edrophonium
    Reversible Cholinesterase inhibitor, reverse the effect of certain muscle relaxants and to diagnose myasthenia gravis
  21. Dopamine
    • Adrenergic neurotransmitter
    • low dose: DA1 receptor -> increases splanchnic cerebral coronary and renal blood flow
    • medium dose: beta 1 receptor -> increase cardiac contractility
    • high dose: alpha 1 receptor -> increase BP and decrease renal/splanchnic flow. For shock, sepsis, or chronic heart decompensation
  22. Ephedrine
    sympathomimetic, increase norepinephrine release
  23. Epinephrine
    • Adrenergic neurotransmitter 
    • beta 2 > beta 1 > alpha 1 > alpha 2
    • low dose: bronchodilator and increase cardiac contractility
    • high dose: vasoconstriction and increase BP (also low/intermediate dose with beta blockers)
  24. Flumazenil
    • GABA-A receptor antagonist
    • reverse the effects of anesthesia
  25. Gantacurium
    Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker as fast and short acting as succinylcholine
  26. Glycopyrrolate
    Muscarnic antagonist, reduce GI secretions during surgery, doesn't cross BBB, can be used to reverse effects of neostigmine
  27. Guanethidine
    Sympatholytic, anti-hypertensive drug, inhibits norepinephrine release into synapse
  28. Histamine
    increases permeability of capillaries, produced by basophils and mast cells, increases local immune response
  29. Ipratropium
    Muscarinic antagonist, bronchodilator used in COPD or asthma
  30. Isoproterenol
    • Nonselective beta adrenergic agonist
    • beta 1 effect: chronotropic and inotropic increase in HR
    • beta 2 effect: bronchodilation (may also cause vasodilation in heart?)
  31. Lidocaine
    Local anesthetic, VGSC blocker prevents action potentials in pain sensory neurons
  32. Losartan
    Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blocker (AT1 antagonist), decrease blood pressure
  33. MAO Inhibitors
    • Inhibits MAO enzyme degradation of serotonin and catecholamines
    • adverse reaction with foods containing large amounts of tyramine
  34. Methacholine
    Muscarinic agonist used to test for asthma/airway problems with careful monitoring
  35. Modafinil
    • CNS stimulant
    • blocks dopamine transporter and improves wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy and sleep apnea
  36. Muscarine
    • From mushrooms, binds and activates muscarinic acetylcholine receptors 
    • increase parasympathetic tone (constricted pupils, increase secretions, bradycardia)
  37. Neostigmine
    • cholinesterase inhibitor, increase acetylcholine levels
    • used to reverse paralysis by nondepolarizing neuromuscular block post surgery, does not cross BBB
  38. Nicotine
    Plant metabolite, binds specifically to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and activates sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic signals and skeletal muscle contraction
  39. Norepinephrine
    • Adrenergic neurotransmitter
    • binds beta 1 > alpha 1 > alpha 2
  40. Organophosphates
    • inhibit cholinesterase
    • increase levels of acetylcholine
  41. Pancuronium
    nondepolarizing, competitive neuromuscular blocker, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist
  42. Phenobarbital
    barbituate, anti-seizure, sedative
  43. Phenylephrine
    alpha 1 adrenergic receptor agonist, used as a decongestant (vasoconstriction dries up secretions)
  44. Phenytoin
    Na channel blocker used as an anti-convulsant
  45. Physostigmine
    Cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses BBB and reverses CNS effects of delirium or coma but may cause seizures
  46. Prazosin
    Alpha 1 antagonist used to treat hypertension
  47. Procaine
    local anesthetic, VGSC blocker prevents action potential generation in pain sensory neurons
  48. Propanolol
    Nonselective beta adrenergic antagonist, used to treat anxiety, reduce blood pressure, prevent angina pectoris
  49. Propofol
    General anesthetic that potentiates the effects of GABA at the GABA receptor (sensitizing but not an agonist)
  50. Pyridostigmine
    Cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat myasthenia gravis (2-3 hour duration)
  51. Renin
    • Cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I 
    • released by juxtaglomerular cells in response to low pressure in afferent arteriole, beta 1 adrenergic signaling, or low sodium in distal tubule, release is inhibited by negative feedback through activation of AT1 receptors in juxtaglomerular cells
    • ultimately increases blood volume, causes vasoconstriction, and therefore increases BP
  52. Reserpine
    Sympatholytic, inhibits formation of norepinephrine vesicles
  53. Scopolamine
    • muscarinic antagonist, used for motion sickness, crosses BBB and can cause drowsiness, amnesia, and euphoria
    • stronger than antihistamines
  54. Sildenafil
    Aka Viagra, PDE inhibitor prevents cGMP degradation and enhances vasodilation in response to NO
  55. Spironolactone
    Aldosterone antagonist (K+ sparing diuretic)
  56. Succinylcholine
    • Depolarizing, noncompetitive neuromuscular blocker
    • nicotinic Ach receptor desensitizer, fast and short acting
  57. Tamsulosin
    alpha 1 antagonist used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy
  58. Terbutaline
    Beta 2 agonist, used for asthma and to delay preterm labor
  59. Thiazolidinediones
    PPAR agonists, increase insulin sensitivity in type II diabetes
  60. Tricyclic Antidepressants
    Inhibit seretonin and norepinephrine reuptake by blocking transporters
  61. Tolterodine
    antimuscarinic drug used to treat urinary incontinence
  62. Tyramine
    • Sympathomimetic, stimulates release of norepinephrine (similar to ephedrine)
    • present in aged cheese, wine, and fermented meats
  63. Tropicamide
    Antimuscarinic drug used to dilate pupils, short acting eye drops
Author:
sjernst
ID:
313259
Card Set:
Pharm Drugs to Know
Updated:
2015-12-15 20:17:16
Tags:
Pharmacology
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Cell Path 1 Drugs to know
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