MCAT behavioral sciences 4

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  1. cognition
    how our brains process and react to the incredible info overload presented to us by the world
  2. 4 key components to the information processing model
    • thinking (requires sensation,encoding,storage of stim)
    • stim must be analyzed by brain to be useful in decision making
    • decisions made in one situation can be adjusted to solve new problems
    • problem solving depends on persons cognitive level, context, and complexity of the problem
  3. cognitive development
    development of ones ability to think and solve problem across the life span
  4. 4 Piaget's stage of cognitive development
    • sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concrete operationl
    • formal operational
  5. Jean Piaget's contribution to developmental psychology
    • insisted there were qualitative differences between the way children and adults think
    • passage through each of these stages prepares the individual for the next stage
  6. schema
    includes a concept, a behavior, or a sequence of events
  7. schema example
    • concept (what is a dog)
    • Behavior (what do you do when someone asks your name)
    • sequence of events (what do you do when you sit at a restaurant)
  8. adaptation
    new info that comes about when being placed in diff schemata and can come about in two ways (assimilation and accommodation)
  9. assimilation
    process of classifying new info into existing schemata
  10. accommodation
    process by which existing schemata are modified to encompass new info
  11. sensorimotor stage
    birth-2 y.o.
    child learns to manipulate their environment in order to meet physical needs
  12. 2 types of circular reactions name for their repetitive natures
    • primary circular reactions
    • secondary circular reactions
  13. primary circular reaction
    • repetition of a body movement that originally occurred by chance
    • (i.e. sucking thumb b/c soothing)
  14. secondary circulation reaction
    manipulation is focused on something outside the body
  15. object permanence
    understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view
  16. representational thought
    a child has begun to create mental representations of external objects and events
  17. symbolic thinking
    ability to pretend, play make believe, and have an imagination
  18. egocentrism
    inability to imagine what another person may think or feel
  19. centration
    tendency to focus on only one aspect of a phenomenon or inability to understand the concept of conservation
  20. concrete operational stage
    7-11 y.o.
    • can understand conservation and consider the perspective of others
    • engage in logical as long as the object they are working with is concrete and info is directly available
  21. formational operational stage
    around 11 y.o.
    ability to think logically about abstract ideas
  22. Lev Vygotsky
    prominent psychologist, proposed that whats driving cog development is the childs internalization of her culture and interpersonal and societal rules
  23. fluid intelligence
    crystallized intelligence
    • problem solving
    • use of learned skills and knowledge
  24. activities of daily living
    • eating
    • bathing
    • toileting
    • dressing
  25. dementia
    impaired mem and later on impaired judgement and confusion
  26. delirium
    rapid fluctuation in cog function that is reversible and caused by medical causes
  27. 3 ways cognition an be affected
    • genetic and chromosomal defects (down syndrome)
    • parenting styles (how they were rewarded/punished)
    • biological factors (chemical exposures or complications at birth,illness or injury)
  28. mental state
    tendency to approach problems in the same way
  29. duncker's candle problem
    • candle,box of matches, and tacks
    • attach candle to wall without having the wax drop on the floor
    • use box as a holder and tack box to wall
  30. functional fixedness
    inability to consider how to use an object in a nontraditional manner
  31. algorithm
    formula or procedure for solving a certain type of problem
  32. deductive reasoning (top-down)
    starts from a set of rules and draws conclusions from the info given
  33. inductive reasoning (bottom-up)
    seeks to create a theory via generalizations
  34. heuristics
    simplified principles used to make decisions (rule of thumb)
  35. availability heuristic
    when we try to decide how likely something is
  36. representativeness heuristic
    categorizing items on the basis of whether they fit the protypical,stereotypical, or representative image of the category
  37. base rate fallacy
    using prototypical or stereotypical factors while ignoring actual numerical info
  38. disconfirmation principle
    evidence obtained from testing demonstrated that the solution doesnt work
  39. confirmation bias
    tendency to focus on info that fits an individuals beliefs, while rejecting info that goes against them
  40. intuition
    act of perceptions that are not supported by available evidence
  41. recognition-primed decision model
    doctor's brain is actually sorting through a wide variety of info to match a pattern
  42. multiple intelligences
    theory that we all have 7 defined types of intelligence
  43. 7 types of Gardner's multiple intelligence
    • linguistic
    • logical math
    • musical
    • visual-spatial
    • body-kinesthetic
    • interpersonal
    • intrapersonal
  44. 4 approaches to problem solving
    • trial and error
    • algorithms
    • deductive reasoning
    • inductive reasoning
  45. 4 types of decision making
    • heuristics
    • biases
    • intuition
    • emotion
  46. 2 types of heuristics used in decision making
    • availability
    • representativeness
  47. consciousness
    one's level of awareness of both the world and one's own existence
  48. reticular formation
    neural structure located in the brainstem to keep cortex awake and alert
  49. EEG (electrocephalography)
    records average of the electrical patterns w/in diff portions of the brain
  50. 4 characteristic EEG patterns correlated with diff stages of waking and sleeping
    ***aka non rapid eye movement***
    • beta
    • alpha
    • theta
    • delta
  51. it takes 90 min for the sleep stages to perform a complete cycle
    REM occurs during all sleep stages
  52. Beta waves in EEG meaning
    • high frequency, neurons randomly firing
    • occur when the person is alert of attending a mental task that requires attention
  53. alpha waves in EEG meaning
    • occur when we are awake but relaxing with our eyes closed
    • slower than beta waves
  54. Stages of sleep and what happens (4)
    • 1: start dozing off. Appearance of theta waves that are characterized by irregular waves w/ slow freq and high voltages
    • 2:deeper sleep, theta waves along with sleep spindles and k complexes occur
    • 3/4: more deep sleep, slow wave sleep occurs. The EEG goes slower until only a few sleep waves are seen. Delta waves are shown (low freq and high volt)
  55. delta waves
    • seen when slow wave sleep waves are seen when in a deeper sleep
    • low freq and high vol
  56. theta waves
    • first dozing off
    • irregular waveforms w/slow freq and high volt
  57. paradoxical sleep
    • arousal levels reach full awakeness but muscles are paralyzed
    • heart rate,breathing, and EEG mimic awakeness but individual is still asleep
  58. circadia rhythms
    cycle of waking and sleeping is regulated by internally generated rhythms
  59. how melatonin is released into the blood stream
    • the retina has a direct connection to the hypothal which controls the pineal gland.
    • increase in light  increases melatonin
  60. cortisol is related to sleep wake cycle, increases during the morningbecause corticotropin releasing factor comes from hypo
  61. adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • comes from anterior pituit
    • stimulates cortisol release and contributes to wakefulness
  62. Dreaming occurs when
    mostly during REM after stage 2 sleep
  63. 4 theories of the purpose and meaning of dreams
    • activation synthesis
    • problem solving
    • cognitive process
    • neurocognitive models of dreaming
  64. activation-synthesis theory
    dreams are caused by widespread random activation of neural activity
  65. problem solving dream theory
    dreams solve problems while you're sleeping
  66. neurocognitive models of dreaming
    unify bio and psycho perspectives on dreaming by correlating subjective, cognitive experience of dreaming w/measurable physiological changes
  67. cognitive process dream theory
    dreams are the sleeping counterpart of stem-of-consciousness (you are thinking about your vacation, and then your mind changes to the MCAT test date)
  68. 2 categories of sleeping disorders
    • dyssomnia
    • parasomnia
  69. dyssomnia
    disorders that make it difficult to fall asleep,stay asleep, or avoid sleep
  70. parasomnia
    abnormal movements or behavior during sleep such as night terrors or sleep walking
  71. cataplexy
    a loss of muscle control and sudden intrusion of REM sleep during waking hours caused by an emotional trigger
  72. hypnagogic hallucinations
    occurs when one is going to bed
  73. hypnopompic halloucinations
    occur when one is popping up out of bed
  74. REM rebound
    an earlier onset and greater duration of REM sleep compared to normal
  75. depressants
    relax NS and results in relaxation and reduced anxiety (alcohol)
  76. what 2 ways does alcohol have affect on the brain
    • increses the activity of GABA receptor which causes general brain inhibition, diminishing arousal at moderate doses
    • increases dopamine levels causing euphoria,if higher, more disrupted brain activity (motor skills and fatigue)
  77. alcohol myopia
    main effects on logical reasoning is the inability to recognize consequences of actions
  78. GABA
    • primary inhibitory NT in the brain
    • receptor is a Cl channel that causes hyperpolarization of the mem
  79. wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
    deficinacy is thiamine, and characterized by severe mem impairment w/ changes n mental status and loss of motor skills
  80. barbituates
    anxiety reducing and sleep meds
  81. benzodiazepines
    less prone to overdose
  82. benzo and barbits increase GABA activity causing relaxation and can be highly addictive
  83. 3 types of stimulants
    • amphetamines
    • cocaine
    • ecstasy
  84. stimulants
    cause an increase in arousal in the NS
  85. amphetamines
    increased arousal by increasing relase of dopamine,norepinephrine, and serotonin at the synapse and decrease reputake
  86. cocaine
    • decreases reuptake of dopamine,norepinephrine, and serotonin by diff mechanism
    • (crack is same but can be smoked)
  87. ecstasy
    hallucinogen combined with amphetamine
  88. 4 physiological effects of amphetamines
    • increases arousal
    • reduction in apetite
    • decrease need for sleep
    • increase heart rate/blood pressure
    • **stroke or brain damage**
  89. 5 psychological effects of amphetamines
    • euphoria
    • being on edge
    • anxiety
    • delusions
    • paranoia
  90. effects of cocaine
    • similar to amphetamines
    • vasoconstrictive properties
    • can lead to heart attacks and strokes
  91. 6 physiological effects of ecstasy
    • increase heart rate
    • increase BP
    • blurry vision
    • sweating
    • nausia
    • hyperthermia
  92. 3 psychological effects of ecstasy
    • euphoria
    • increased alertness
    • overwhelming sense of well being
  93. 2 effect of opiates and opioids
    • decrease reaction to pain
    • euphoria
  94. tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    • active chemical in MJ
    • acts on cannabinoid receptors (glycine receptors and opioid receptors)
  95. the effect THC has on the brain
    • GABA activity increase cuases neural inhibition
    • dopamine acivity (pleasure)
  96. 3 psychological effects of THC
    • stimulant
    • depressant
    • hallucinogen
  97. 4 dopaminergic pathways in the brain
    • mesolimbic reward
    • nucleus accumbens
    • ventral tegmental area
    • medial forebrain bundle
  98. sensorium
    sensory environment
  99. selective attention
    focusing on one part of the sensorium while ignoring other stimuli
  100. cocktail party phenomenon
    • diff interpretation of selective attention
    • engaging in convo and then losing your attention because you hear your name across the room so you put your attention to that
  101. divided attention
    the ability to perform multiple tasks at the same time
  102. automatic processing
    familiar or routine actions can be performed which allows the brain to focus on other tasks with divided attention
  103. phonemes
    40 speech sounds in english
  104. phonology
    refers to the actual sound of language
  105. categorical perception
    ability to make distinction  of subtle differences between speech sounds represent a change in the meaning
  106. 5 components of language
    • phonology
    • morphology
    • semantics
    • syntax
    • pragmatics
  107. morphology
    structure of words
  108. morphemes
    words composed of multiple building blocks that connotes a particular meaning
  109. semantics
    association of the meaning of the word
  110. syntax
    how words are put together to form sentences
  111. pragmatics
    dependence of language on context and pre-existing knowledge
  112. prosody
    rhythm, cadence, and inflection of our voices
  113. 5 parts to the timeline of language acquisition
    • 9-12m babbling
    • 12-18m one word per month
    • 18-20m explosion of language and combining words
    • 2-3y longer sentences
    • 5y language rules largely mastered
  114. errors of growth
    child applies a grammatical rule in a situation where it does not apply (runned instead of ran)
  115. nativists (biological) theory
    • credited by Noam Chomsky
    • advocates fr the existence of some innate capacity for language
  116. transformational grammar
    • changes in word order that retain the same meaning (i took the mcat vs the mcat was taken by me)
    • Chomsky's study
  117. language acquisition device
    theoretical pathway in the brain that allows infants to process and absorb language rules
  118. sensitive period
    time when environmental input has maximal effect on the development of an ability
  119. learning (behaviorist) theory
    proposed by Skinner, explained language acquisition by operant conditioning
  120. social interactionist theory
    language of development focuses on the interplay between biological and social processes
  121. whorfian hypo (linguistic relativity hypo)
    suggests that our perception of reality is determined by the content of language
  122. 2 areas of the brain are responsible for speech production and language comprehension
    • broca's area
    • wernicke's area
  123. broca's area location and function
    • inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe
    • motor functions of speech via connections with motor cortex
  124. wernicke's area location and function
    • superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe
    • language comprehension
  125. arcuate fasciculus
    bundle of axons that allows appropriate association between language comp and speech production and connects broca and wernicke's area
  126. aphasia
    deficit of language production or comprehension
  127. broca's (expressive) aphasia
    • reduced or absent ability to produce spoken language
    • **become frustrated when they are stuck with the sensation of having every word on the tip of their tongue**
  128. wernicke's (receptive) aphasia
    wernicke's area is damaged, motor production and fluency of speech is retained but comprehension is lost
  129. 3 types of aphasia
    • broca
    • wernicke
    • conduction
  130. conduction aphasia
    • arcuate fasciculus is affected
    • unable to repeat something that has said because connection has been lost
Card Set:
MCAT behavioral sciences 4
2015-12-15 22:45:03
chapter 4,MCAT
chapter 4 of behavioral sciences book
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