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  1. In addition to a source of energy, a source of chem raw materials, and an envelope/barrier, that separates a living organism from its env, which of these are key requirements for life?
    A. Movement & complexity
    B. Ability to sense env & maintain homeostasis
    C. Biological info & catalysis 
    D. ability to adapt & grow
    E. Binding proteins & molecular motors
    C. biological info & catalysis 
  2. Which regard to alleles of a TYPICAL gene, DNA is to genotype as ____________ is/are to phenotype.
    A. RNA
    B. mutation
    C. proteins
    D. lipids 
    E. nucs
    C. proteins 
  3. Which of the following is a diff btwn weak chem bonds and covalent/ionic bonds?
    A. weak chem bonds = harder to break
    B. weak chem bonds = shorter than covalent/ionic bonds
    C. weak chem bonds = not useful in biological sys
    D. weak chem bonds = transient compared to covalent & ionic bonds   
    E. weak chem bonds = require more energy to break than covalent @ ionic bonds
    D. weak chem bonds = transient compared to covalent & ionic bonds   
  4. What are the results for change in DNA seq (mutation)?
    • -changes structure of resulting protein
    • -changes seq of encoded protein
    • -changes amt of RNA produced if reg. seq. is altered
    • -NO change in function of encoded protein
  5. What type of bond / interaction is key to bp'ing in nucleic acids?
    H bond 
  6. Quaternary structure is the structure that includes what?
    multiple polypeptides/subunits.
  7. H bonding is imp in protein ___ structure.
  8. What bond is imp in primary structure?
    peptide bond 
  9. This is the level of protein structure where domains first appear. 
    A. 1° structure
    B. 2° structure
    C. 3° structure
    D. 4° structure
    C. 3° structure
  10. What is pi-stacking interaction?
    interaction of aromatic molecules, including nucleobases, w/ each other & stabilizes nucleic acid structure
  11. In the 3° structure it describes the 3D shape that ......
    tRNA and other functional RNAs attain 
  12. What does a chaperonin do ?
    this protein creates a microenv / "cage" for another protein to aid in folding
  13. What's an ex of a post synthetic modification that can occur to a DNA base?
    5-methyl cytidine 
  14. A modulator is a molecule that can bind to an allosteric protein's regulatory site, and change what?
    protein conformation 
  15. What are spongiform encephalopathies caused by?
    protein misfolding 
  16. A ______________ DNA binding protein generally binds to the phosphate backbone and does not interact w/ the bases.
  17. What do 
    -post translational modification
    -reversible regulatory event 
    -post synthetic alteration
    all have in common?
    protein phosphorylation occurs in ALL events!
  18. This exp shows that all of the info for attainment of tertiary structure = contained w/in seq of a protein is....
    in-vitro unfolding and refolding of a polypeptide 
  19. This data 4rm an internal report by crystallographer Rosalind Franklin facilitated Watson and Crick's development of the double-helix model for the structure of DNA.
    X-ray crystallography of deoxyribonucleic acid 4rm calf thymus  
  20. What did light microscopy allow Sutton to do?
    make observations of sergregation of chromosomes in gametes (ex: reproductive cells) of a grasshopper leading to his hypothesis that chromosomes = basis of inheritance
  21. Morgan and associates' observation that inheritance of white-eyed trait in fruit flies followed same pattern of inheritance as X chromosome provided strong evidence for this concept.
    Chromosomal theory of inheritance 
  22. Avery found that DNA 4rm a virulent bacterial strain was necessary & sufficient for transformation of an avirulent bacteria strain to a virulent strain, demonstarting this concept.
    DNA = heritable material
  23. Who conducted the experiment that DNA is genetic material ?
    Hershey & Chase 

    (upon infection, 32P-labeled bacterial virus (phage) DNA is transmitted to E.coli but 35S labeled proteins are NOT)
  24. What was done to determine the Michaelis-Menten parameters for an enzyme rxn?
    measure enzyme rxn rate w/ diff concentrations of a substrate.
  25. one gene -> one polypeptide
    Beadle and Tatum concluded this when they observed Nuerospora crassa genomic mutants that interfere w/ this organism's ability to grow on minimal medium can be rescued by AA intermediates that correspond to known enzymatic products in AA synthesis.
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2015-12-15 22:25:57
Exam 1
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