The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
What are the steps of the scientific method in the correct order?
- 1. Make Observations
- 2. Identify Question/ Problem
- 3. Form Hypothesis
- 4. Conduct experiment
- 5. analyze results
- 6. draw conclusions
Explain what a hypothesis is with an example.
A hypothesis is a possible answer to a problem/question that is specific and testable. For example, saying that if Mexicans make strawberries red, then other strawberries will not be red.
Difference between quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative talks about an observation of an amount while qualitative talks about an observation using the five senses.
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? examples, please.
A theory is supported by many observations and experiments while a hypothesis is a possible answer to one question. For example, saying that humans are made of cells is a theory.
Difference between independent and dependent variable.
Independent variable is the factor controlled in the experiment. the dependent variable is what is being measured to find a difference.
Define experimental constants.
experimental constants are things that remain the same in each group of which ONE ting is being changed.
define control group and its importance.
a control group is a group with the regular reaction. therefore, presenting you with a difference in one and the others.
List eleven colts.
reproduction, ingesting, digesting, excreting waste, homeostasis, responsive stimuli, life span, includes cells, grow and develops, organic compounds.
define digesting food.
to digest food means to let your food go through the process of getting broken down into smaller pieces.
list organic compounds. and explain function.
carbs (short-term energy), protein (build up body), lipids(long-term energy), nucleic acids (genetic info).
define homeostasis and example.
homeostasis is processes that your body does to balance the temperature of your body. ex: shivering for body heat when cold and sweating when hot.
explain evolution through natural selection.
green and orang crickets but snakes only like green crickets so green crickets die befoe reproduction while orange crickets reproduce for generations leaving the green crickets extinct with only orange crickets to survive- that is evolution through natural selection.
six elements by all organisms?
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus
a large molecule containing carbon.
a chain of monomers.
what does "organic" mean?
monomers of each macromolecule?
carbohydrates; monosaccharides, lipids; fatty acid & glycerol, protein; amino acids, nucleic acids; nucleotides
example and function of each macromolecule.
- Carbs- Cellulose in plants; builds plant parts
- Protein- Enzymes; speeds up chemical reactions
- Lipids- Blubber; insulates against cold
- Nucleic Acids- DNA; Stores genetic infor.
Define enzyme and importance.
An enzyme is a catalyst and a protein to a biochemical reaction. matters because if chemical reactions weren't fast enough, induced fits fail, chemical reactions dont form causing organisms to die out.
steps of Induced fit model?
- 1st- Enzyme has specific shape
- 2nd- substrate (reactants) fit into enzyme
- 3rd- enzyme changes shape
- 4th- reactants forced to work faster than normal and form product.
2 things that decreased enzyme activity.
change in pH and change in temperature.
why arent viruses considered alive?
they cannot reproduce on their own- must take over other cells to change them.
common between pro and eukaryotes?
- -Plasma Membrane
- -Genetic Material
different from pro and eukaryotic cells?
- eukary- laarge, complex
- pro- small, simple
- eukary- nucleus/ organelles/ dna in nucleus/ plants animals, protists, fungi
- eukary- no
- pro- sna in cytoplasm/ in bacteria
difference; plant cells, animal cells
- plant- cell wall/ chloroplasts
- animal- no
- plant- central vacuole
- animal- many small vacuoles
- plant- no
- animal- centrioles/ lysosomes
What does _____do for cell?
- -lysosome; excretes waste from the cell properly
- -vesicle; transports some particles in n out of cell.
boundary between cell and environment, selectively pemerable for the whole cell's saftey. (allows some nutrients in the cell,waste out the cell, pathogens out the cell)
cell is selectively permeable. only some things are allowed in or out.
describe 4 parts of membrane and function.
- Protein; "Tunnel" for substances and closes when no longer necessary.
- Cholesterol;"Glues" fatty acids tails together.
- Carbs; "Fingerprints" for identity and receives signals from cells (antenna).
- Phospholipid; Connects to create impermeable boundary between water inside and water outside the cell.
difference between passive and active transport.
passive no energy, active requires atp.
difference; simple/ facilitated difussion
simple can be done on its own, facilitated, too big so needs help from protein to get by.
when water selectively moves back and forth between a cell and its environment to balance the equilibrium. from hypotonic to hypertonic.
if cell placed in hypertonic solution, ...
water is escaping the cell, into the environment and too much of this wil cause the shell to shrivel.
ion pump is..
protein sending ions across plasma membrane because this is how nervous messages are sent.
difference; endo and exocytosis
endo is taking a particle into the cell through the membrane and exo is releasing a particle from the cell .
Molecule used for energy by all cells?
purpose of photosynthesis.
to create light energy into food, carbohydrates, cellulose.
which organelle perform photosynthesis?
what are 2 steps of photosynthesis and what is the purpose of each?
light reactions; produce adp and nadphh; ransformm these energy types into carbs
wich molecule captures energy from light?
what is purpose of cellular respiration?
transform o2 and glucose to make co2, h2o and atp.
organelle performs cell. repiration.
2 steps of cell. respiration and purpose.
glycolosis is what splits glucose into smaller pieces and makes 2 atp. then 3rd step in electron transport chain which uses co2, nadh, fadh2 to produce 38 atp and some water.
fermentation is when atp is..
produces without oxygen. good; atp, yay! bad; cramps in lactic acid or alcohol in alcoholic fermentation.