4200 exam 3 final review

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  1. **governmental health agencies
    primarily funded by tax dollars, managed by government employees
  2. International agencies
    : World Health Organization
  3. National agencies
    U.S. department of Health and Human services
  4. State agencies
    : state health department
  5. Local agencies
    Local Health department
  6. **Quasi-governmental health agencies
    obtain funding by variety of sources (united way, fees for services, donations, governmental funding) e.g. **American Red Cross
  7. **Non-governmental health agencies
    : operate free from governmental interference; funding sources: private donations, membership fees. categorized as voluntary, philanthropic, service, religious, and professional agencies
  8. **Voluntary health agencies
    Most visible (American cancer society, **American heart association, American lung association, alzheimers association and first candle) PURPOSE: fund research, provide education, provide service, advocate for beneficial policies, laws, and regulations
  9. **Philanthropic foundations
    • provide important funding of programs and research on a cariety of health issues (ford foundation, Robert wood Johnson foundation, and Rockefeller foundation). PURPOSE: altruistic concern for human welfare and advancement. do not raise money, finance long term projects
    • ** endowment
  10. **Service Fraternal and Religious groups
    Often involved in health education/promotion related projects; these may include drug education programs, wellness efforts, and variety of other services (rotary international, lions, **Shriners, and American legion)
  11. **Professional health associations/organizations
    common mission is to **promote the high standards of professional practice for their respective profession. PURPOSE: advocates for the profession, provides publication of journals and newsletters, provides opportunities for professional meetings, provides membership perks, is funded by membership dues
  12. **Professional Organizations:Oldest and largest
    American Public Health Association (APHA) 1872, 50,000+ members
  13. professional organization that is Most relevant to health educators
    Society for public health education, Inc. (SOPHE)
  14. **Purposes of Coalitions
    • Exist to help the many different organizations speak with a single voice on current issue.
    • **Purposes:  Strengthen communication among members, develop implement and evaluate share vision strategic plan, educate policy makers, collaborate on common issues, increase visibility for health education and members of org.
  15. **Advocacy
    • **a combination of individual and social actions designed to gain: political commitment, policy support, social acceptance, systems for a particular health goal or program
    • ** expand the resource base for: behavioral and social science research, programs and practice, preparation health educators, employment workforce
  16. Types of information sources
    primary, secondary, tiertiary, popular press publications
  17. **primary sources
    refereed or peer reviewed journals; some now in electronic format known as open access journals; legislative records, **minutes of meeting
  18. **Secondary sources
    written by someone who was not present or did not participate as part of the study team e.g. journal **review articles, editorials, non-eyewitness accounts
  19. **tiertiary sources
    information that has been distilled and collected from primary and secondary sources; includes facts **e.g. handbooks, pamphlets, fact books, dictionaries
  20. popular press publications
    Written for the general public’s consumption; may include primary or secondary sources; hard to check credibility e.g. weekly summary type magazines, monthly magazines, tabloids
  21. **Components of a research article: IMRAD
    introduction, methods, results, discussion
  22. **abstract
    • brief description of the study; communicates essential information
    • short **(150-200 word) includes purpose, study questions, methods and one or two major findings
  23. **introduction
    includes research questions/hypotheses, literature review, need
  24. **methodology
    includes research design, participants of study, instrumentation, and administrative procedures
  25. **results
    research findings
  26. **discussion
    interpret conclusions and meanings, and comment on implications
  27. **critically assessment of a research article
    • were the goals/aims of study defined in a **clear manner
    • were the research questions/hypotheses **clearly stated
    • was the description of the participants **clear, did the author state how the participants were recruited
    • were the data collection instruments described
    • were reliability and validity reported for the instruments
    • did the results directly address the research question/hypotheses
    • were the conclusions reasonable in light of the research design and data analyses performed
    • were the study implications meaningful to the population you serve
  28. summary
    longer than abstract (2-3 pages) review includes all that is found in an abstract; in addition summaries reveal any secondary findings, to describe study limitations, and to provide a more detailed review of the researchers conclusions and recommendations from the viewpoint of the summary’s author
  29. evaluating online sources and information Check:
    • currency – the timeliness of the information relevance – the importance of the information for your needs
    • authority – the source of the information accuracy – the reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the content
    • purpose – the reason the information exists
  30. **Future of health education:demographic changes
    • greatest change will occur in the **Hispanic and asian/pacific islander groups.
    • One place where more diverse populace is in public schools.
    • **U.S. pop will become older; reasons- Americans live longer, couples have fewer children, baby boomers nearing retirement
  31. **Societal trends of health education
    **technology: improved quality of life (new delivery methods, tailored communications, GIS Tracking
  32. examples of societal trends
    • family structure will continue to change – traditional family less common
    • political climate: frustration with politics and politicians various views (conservative (less big govt), moderate, liberal (more big govt), health and politics linked;
    • more macrolevel practice.
    • advocacy more important
    • medical care establishment
    • affordable care act:
    • consumers need to be involved in decision making
  33. professional preparation
    • mission will be help people be more analytical thinkers,
    • a greater emphasis will be placed on values clarification,
    • health education specialists must use technology,
    • education at the community level will be the focus of most health interventions,
    • HES need long term not short term thinking
  34. critical skills those leading the health education promotion profession into the next several decades
    collaborative relationships, innovativeness curiousness adventure and truth seeking
  35. credentialing
    places emphasis on the acquisition of skills means to assess whether or not a person has met entry-level competencies NCHEC
  36. credentialing may help do the 3 following
    • may allow for reimbursement for health education services provided in a medical care setting
    • certification process establishes a national standard for individual health education practitioners
    • assist employers in identifying competent specialists
  37. Implications for health educators in the 6 areas
    • school setting
    • worksite setting
    • public (community health) setting
    • Clinical or health care setting
    • alternative settings
    • macro level versus microlevel
  38. Implications for HE in worksite
    expanding all the time – programs for employees and family, health care costs can be controlled through health promotion
  39. implications for HE in public settings (community health)
    : greatest variety of options; they are consistently involved in planning implementing and evaluating population level interventions
  40. implications for HE in clinical or health setting
    growing; increased receptivity HES make a difference in patient care; preventive services are lacking b/c of no time, patient education a required practice
  41. implications for HE in alternative settings
    teaching postsecondary institutions, combine journalism and health education, foreign country practice, work with aging population
  42. **macro level versus microlevel approach
    assume a macrolevel approach to health problems; so move from a position of assisting behavior change one person at a time to **community-based interventions. need knowledge of political process.
  43. Healthy people 2020 lessons learned and progress made from HP 2010
    not easy to use as a resource; many unaware it exists, lack of progress or slow progress in achieving objectives, HP 2020 needs to be web accessible and searchable
  44. **Healthy people 2020 goals
    • **Provide measurable objectives and goals
    • Eliminate preventable disease disability **(emphasize everyone can benefit and also include hazard prepardness), injury and premature death;
    • achieve health equity,
    • eliminate disparities and improve the health of all groups;
    • create social and physical environments that promote good health for all **(ecological approach);
    • promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across **every stage of life.
  45. Healthy people 2020 leading health indicators
    • access to health services,
    • clinical preventive services,
    • environmental quality,
    • injury and violence,
    • maternal, infant and child health care, mental health,
    • nutrition physical activity and obesity,
    • oral health,
    • reproductive and sexual health,
    • social determinants,
    • substance abuse,
    • tobacco
  46. What is a health educator; where employed
    schools, college/university campus, companies, health care settings, community organizations and government agencies
  47. What does a trained health educator do
    • Assess individual and community needs
    • Plan, develop, coordinate, implement, manage, evaluate health education programs write grants
    • build coalitions
    • identify resources
    • make referrals
    • develop social marketing and mass media campaigns
    • organize/mobilize communities for action handle controversial health issues/content advocate for health related issues
    • use a variety of education/training methods develop audio, visual, print and electronic materials
    • conduct research
    • write scholarly articles
  48. **Top workforce trends
    Social marketing
  49. What was the alliance of five national associations
    AAHPERD
  50. **What is health education
    • ** development of strategies to improve health knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviors
    • **the effort to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities
    • **A social science that draws from many sectors and seeks to facilitate voluntary behavior change
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anatomy2012
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4200 exam 3 final review
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2015-12-17 19:39:03
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4200 health foundations exam 3 review
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