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What are the causes of urbanisation? (List 5)
- Natural population growth
- Rural to urban migration
- Agricultural problems/technology growth no need in rural areas
- Desire for better healthcare/QoL
- Food and water accessibility better
- Opportunities to work
- Businesses attract more businesses
What are the negative effects of urbanisation? (List 6)
- Shortage of professionals in rural areas
- Rubbish and dirty water in urban area
- Stress related illnesses increase
- Increased pollution (CO², noise, light)
- High unemployment rate
- Slums develop
- Reduced living space per person
- Crime rates increase#
- Ratio of doctor to patient increases (reduced access)
How can increasing urbanisation be managed? (5)
- Increase recycling to reduce rubbish and provide jobs
- Improve transportation links to reduce congestion
- Add affordable housing (may include demolishing slums)
- Improve sewage systems (Cairo did this)
- Underground metro system (Singapore, Cairo)
What fraction of the urban dwellers in developing countries cannot afford/find accommodation that meets basic health and safety standards?
Is it easier for governments to rebuild slum areas or to improve them?
Improve them by adding sewage systems, electricity and public services (waste collection, street lighting)
What is the 'City of the Dead' in Cairo?
A huge Muslim cemetery where up to 3 million people live in the tombs for shelter.
What is the Singaporean HDB and what has it done?
- Housing and Development Board
- Has created purpose-built estates within 23 new towns. Units of closely packed high rise flats for families. minimum of three rooms
- Each estate has lots of greenery and amenities such as shops and schools and medical centres.
- They are cleaned and maintained by the government.
- One quarter of wage goes to the government and can eventually buy their own home.
- 81% of Singaporeans lived in government built housing with 79% buying their own home.
What are the causes of suburbanisation in Los Angeles? (List 4)
- Glamourous image of Hollywood
- TransContinental railway links
- Greater affluence means greater choice in housing
- Low density detached family housing
- Fewer planning restrictions and cheaper land
- Safer neighbourhoods
- Open spaces
- Inner city area is crowded and congested
The outward growth of urban development which may engulf surrounding villages and forums into a larger urban agglomeration
What are the characteristics of suburbanisation? (List 6)
- Greater amount of space (compared to inner city)
- Larger houses and gardens
- More greenery
- Medium wealth income residents
- Detached or semi-detached housing
- Recreational facilities such as golf courses, gym
- Based around a main road into city
- Perceived as safer places to live
- Buses available
What are the causes of suburbanisation? (List 6)
- Safer environment
- has more greenery (closer to nature)
- Less pollution out of city
- Better education opportunities, smaller schools, less crowded
- Increase in personal wealth
- 'White flight' people move to neighbourhoods of people with the same ethnicity
- Can still commute to city
What are the effects of suburbanisation? (list 6)
- Reduced need for high-rise in cities
- Decline in inner city as professionals move away
- Split communities with income gaps
- New facilities in rural areas
- Suburban land price increase
- Increasing pollution in suburban areas
What are ribbon developments and when did they happen?
- In 1930s
- the building of houses along a main road, especially one leading out of a town or village
- popular because of few planning controls
When were 'green belts' developed? What are they?
- In the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947 after concerns that the gap between ribbon developments was closing.
- They were created to restrict further development
When did large scale constructions of council housing take place on the suburban fringe?
During the 1950s and 1960s.
When did home ownership and the building of private urban fringe estates with gardens happen?
In the 1970s onwards
What is counter-urbanisation?
The migration of people from major urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas.
What are the causes of counter-urbanisation? (list 5)
- Rural areas are more pleasant and quieter than city
- People can still commute due to increase in use of private cars
- Improvements to internet access in these areas means they are no longer cut off
- Rising demand for second home/retirement home
- Facilities are available in suburban areas so there is no need to travel to city
- Motorways and new roads allow people to move out of urban areas but still stay connected
What are the characteristics of counter-urbanisation? (5)
- Increasing house prices
- New properties built on the edge of small settlements
- Small industrial units built on road towards settlement
- Old converted properties
- A railway station
What are the positive effects of counter-urbanisation? (4)
- Businesses and shops attracted, meaning more access for people in area
- Improvement in services, such as internet connectivity
- New schools may open
- Inner city/suburban schools may see reduction in numbers
What are the negative effects of counter-urbanisation? (list 5)
- Villages and rural areas may lose their charm
- House prices increase
- Public transportation may decrease as people choose to use their own cars (bad for elderly)
- Small rural services and shops may close
- Traffic congestion increases
- Derelict buildings accumulate in cities
- Wealthier people migrate to rural areas leaving a divided city causing increasing crime and segregation
What is the example for counter-urbanisation?
- St. Ives, Cambridgeshire
- (100km north of London)
What have been the positive effects of counter-urbanisation in St. Ives?
- New designer shops opened
- Thriving secondary school
- Bus services increased
- Building plans have changed, must now include green space and tasteful street furniture
What have been the negative effects of counter-urbanisation in St. Ives?
- Closing gap between those who can afford the rising cost of housing and those who cannot
- Increased demand for low-cost housing
- Plans to build higher density buildings
- increased congestion
What is re-urbanisation?
Movement of people into the city centre or inner city as part of urban regeneration
What are the three main processes of re-urbanisation?
- Property regeneration schemes
- Sustainable communities
What is gentrification?
The in-movement of an individual or group of individuals into older housing close to the city centre, which was in a state of disrepair and the improvement of that housing to make it desirable once again.
Define: property regeneration schemes
Large scale investment programmes aimed at urban regenration in a wider social, economic and physical sense to encourgage the in-movement of people
How can creating a sustainable community help with re-urbanising an area?
Allows individuals and communities who live in city centres to have access to a home, a job and a reliable income, with a reasonable quality of life and opportunities to maximise personal potential through education and health provision and through participation in local democracies
What type of properties are usually subject to gentrification?
Victorian or Edwardian homes with large rooms, unique fireplaces and high ceilings
What are the positive effects of gentrification? (List 6)
- Prevents a continuing downward spiral of decline in an area
- Works with existing properties rather than new ones, reducing vacant housing rate
- Local fiscal revenue increases
- Area may see decrease in crime rate
- Young, poor people who see wealth around them are more likely to aspire to that wealth so school attainment may increase
- new facilities, shops and schools and medical centres, open
What are the negative effects of gentrification? (List 6)
- Rent prices increase so original residents may have to move out or fall into debt
- Tension between new and old residents
- Affordable housing in area ceases to exist
- Services change, may become more expensive
- Increased targeted crime
- loss of ethnic diversity
- Increased pollution and congestion
- Areas which are being redeveloped cause noise and air pollution
What is the case study for gentrification?
Where is the oldest housing found on the Burgess model?
Close to the CBD (Central Business district)
Where is the newest housing found on the Burgess model?
On the edge of city
What was Notting Hill like before it was gentrified in the 1960s?
- It was a deprived, working class area
- Houses divided up into apartments after ww2
- Race riots between British people and Afro-caribbean migrants
The Notting Hill carnival celebrates the afro-caribbean culture that developed here in the past. Largest street festival outside of Rio de Janeiro
What is Notting Hill like now, after gentrification?
- A tourist attraction, extremely wealthy area with high end shops and boutiques.
- Colourful area occupied mainly by 20-40 year old professionals. Fewer children than the average for London.