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What is urban decline?
The deterioration of the inner city often caused by a lack of investment and maintenance. It is often, but not exclusively, accompanied by a decline in population numbers, decreasing economic performance and unemployment.
What is urban deprivation?
When an individual's well being falls below a level generally accepted as a reasonable minimum for Britain today
What is multiple deprivation?
A combination of social, environmental and economic deprivation.
How can housing cause social segregation?
- Developers, builders and planners tend to build housing on blocks of land with a particular market in mind
- Wealthier people can choose where they want to live but poorer groups cannot and may be need to be placed in social housing
How can changing environments cause social segregation?
- Gentrification changes the socio-demographic group in an area
- Large houses may be converted into smaller apartments of flats creating student areas
How can ethnic dimension cause social segregation?
New migrants can only afford to buy cheap housing, usually in the inner city.
What are the consequences of inner city decline? (list 6)
- Lack of investment
- Increased crime rates
- Little/no green space
- High levels of illness
- High levels of pollution
- Social unrest
- Building disrepair
What physical aspects can help to determine quality of life? (4)
- Appearance of buildings
- Pollution levels (noise, CO², light, litter)
- Vandalism (can be intimidating)
- Vacant buildings
What economic aspects can help to determine quality of life? (4)
- How much investment there is in the area by council and other sources
- Average wage and how it compares to national average
- Access to employment (jobs available)
- Cost of living
What political aspects can help to determine quality of life?
- Which party the majority of people support are and what this party's views are
- Opportunities to participate in community life and influence decisions (eg voting opportunities, councils)
What social aspects can help to determine quality of life? (6)
- Percentage of people on state benefits
- Level of free school meals
- Education qualifications or literacy rate
- Number of single parents in area
- Access to healthcare
- Crime rate or fear within community
What are the causes of inner city decline? (list 5)
- Population loss
- Unemployment rise
- Derelict properties
- No community feeling/unsafe feelings
- Lack of investment
How many City Challenge Partnerships were granted money to improve declining urban areas?
- Between 1992 and 1998 when the scheme ran
How has economic decline led to urban decline?
Deindustrialisation and the movement of hi-tech businesses to peripheral locations which provide more space at a cheaper price
How has population loss led to urban decline?
Younger, more skilled and more affluent people move out of inner cities in search of housing and employment in a more pleasurable environment.
What percentage of the UK's largest conurbations was lost between 1951 and 1981?
How can a poor physical environment led to urban decline?
An unappealing and intimidating environment will push people away
How can political problems lead to urban decline?
The residents feel neglected by politicians and do not vote in elections, meaning they feel further neglected as their opinion is not heard
In Hackey 2010 parliamentary elections only 61% of people voted
What are Urban Development Corporations (UDCs)?
- Set up in the 1980s 1990s
- Given approval powers over and above local authorities to regenerate the physical, social and economic aspects of inner cities areas
- Using public money to attract private investment
Why were Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) criticized?
- Local people had no say in the developments taking place
- New jobs created were not suitable for the people in the area
- Attracted affluent 'yuppies' who pushed house prices up
- Original community feeling lost
What are partnership schemes?
Development ideas between local and national government and the private sector associated with City Challenge partnerships and sustainable communities
How many homes were improved as a result of the City Challenge partnerships?
How many hectares of derelict land was reclaimed?
- Over 40,000 houses
- Nearly 2,000 hectares
What are sustainable communities?
- Places where people will want to live and work both now and in the future
- intended to meet the diverse needs of existing and future residents, sensitive to the environment and allow for a high quality of life
- Safe and inclusive, offer equal opportunity to all
- Initiated by Labour governments in early 2000s
What is an example of a sustainable community?
Bedzed Pavilions, London