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What is the traditional pattern for retailing in the UK?
- Corner shops for basic needs
- Town Centres for higher value purchases
What has been a game-changer in the way that people shop?
The increased use of the motor car meaning people can travel further/more easily
What are the three major shopping trends of the last 30 years?
- 1. The desire for one-stop shopping which leads to large supermarkets and hypermarkets
- 2. Large out of town shopping centres and retail parks offering multiple services
- 3. Widespread use of the internet for home shopping and delivery. Tesco were the first to do this in 1996
What is decentralisation?
Supermarkets and shops which had previously been found in the city centre moving to the periphery of urban areas, close to major roads.
What are the five major factors that have caused retail change?
- Increased mobility
- Changing shopping habits
- Expectations of shopping
- The nature of retailing
- Land price
How has increased mobility helped to cause retail change?
- People own their own cars making it easier to park for free at a supermarket than to go into a congested town and pay for parking
- Petrol stations are found in supermarket complexes which draws people in to shop and fill up on fuel (supermarkets often have deals)
- Buses into towns are not as reliable or convenient
How has the nature of shopping habits helped to cause retail change?
Most people work and do not have the time to go shopping daily or cook which increases use of freezers and frozen ready meals which are available from supermarkets on route to/from work
How have the expectations of shopping helped to cause retail change?
- Customers are prepared to spend an entire day shopping even making it a 'family day out'
- This increases additional facilities in shopping centres such as cinemas, food outlets, bowling which makes people feel more at ease
How has the nature of retailing helped to cause retail change?
Hypermarkets are in intense competition with one another for best prices and quality. Out of town land means they can afford to reduce product prices and provide large carparks
How has the price of land helped to cause retail change?
- Out of town areas are cheaper to buy and develop for large companies
- This means the land can be tailor made to appeal to customers
Briefly outline the history of retailing in the UK from the 1960s-2000s
- 1960s - privately owned small scale corner shops, butchers, bakers, greengrocers
- 1970s - development of chain retailers like co-operative
- 1980s - supermarkets develop with the increase use of car
- 1990s - edge of city retail locations develop e.g. Bluewater
- 2000s - online shopping and out of town hypermarkets and retail centres dominate over inner city areas
What is the case study for an out of town shopping centre?
Trafford Centre, Manchester
What are the key features of the central business district? (list 3)
- Multi-storey developments
- Concentration of banks and businesses
- absence of manufacturing
- Low residential population
- Concentration of department stores
What factors influence CBD decline? (list 5)
- planning policies encourage urban expansion and out of town developments
- Peripheral locations are cheaper
- City centres perceived as being dirty and unsafe with ageing infrastructure
- Inner city investments often lack a co-ordinated plan
- high cost of development and limited space to develop in
- congested inner cities makes it easier to travel out rather than in
How can CBD decline be reversed? (list 6)
- Make the area more attractive with greenery and pedestrianised areas
- Hold special shopping events like Christmas markets
- co-ordinate development projects to get a uniform look
- improve public transport into the CBD
- Construct shopping malls with low cost parking
- create a safer feel with cctv and security/police
What are the benefits of inner city shopping?
- Easier for non-drivers to access with public transport
- Outdoor markets provide great atmosphere
- More likely to find boutique/independent shops
- Food available
- Closer to residential areas
What are the benefits of out of town shopping locations?
- Parking may be free/cheaper than inner city
- Large, varied stores
- Food outlets available
- Entertainment facilities such as cinema or bowling
- Convenient for suburban residents