organic chemistry key words

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  1. hydrocarbons?
    Organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only
  2. Unsaturated hydrocarbon
    Is a hydrocarbon containing carbon to carbon multiple bonds
  3. Saturated hydrocarbon
    Hydrocarbon with single bonds only
  4. Aliphatic hydrocarbon
    is a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
  5. Alicyclic hydrocarbon
    Is a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
  6. A functional group
    Is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
  7. A homologous series
    Is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
  8. Alkyl group
    Alkane with a hydrogen atom removed
  9. Structural isomers
    Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangement of atoms
  10. Stereoisomer
    Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangements of atoms in space
  11. E/Z isomerism
    Is a type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotations of the C=C bond
  12. Cis-trans isomerism
    Special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and hydrogen on each C of the C=C bond. The cis isomer (Z isomer) hash atoms on each carbon on the same side. The trans isomer (E isomer)has the H atoms on each carbon on different sides
  13. homolytic fission
    Breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals
  14. Radical
    Species with an unpaired electron
  15. Heterolytic fission
    Breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms forming a cation and an anion
  16. Nucleophile
    Is an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electron to form a new covalent bond (electron pair donor)
  17. Electrophile
    Is an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron rich centre of atom, where it accepts a pair of electron to form a new covalent bond (electron pair acceptor)
  18. Addition reaction
    Is a reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
  19. Substitution reaction
    A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom of group of atoms
  20. Elimination reaction
    Refers to the removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
  21. Fractional distillation
    Separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling points
  22. Cracking
    Refers to the breakdown on long chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter chained alkanes and alkenes
  23. Catalyst
    Is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process
  24. Radical substitution
    Type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom(s)
  25. A pi-bond
    The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p orbitals
  26. Electrophilic addition
    Type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron rich centre of atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
  27. Carbocation
    Organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge
  28. monomer
    Small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer
  29. Polymer
    Long molecular chain built up from monomer units
  30. Addition polymerisation
    Process in which unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers) add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time, to for a very long saturated molecular chain (the addition polymer)
  31. Biodegradable material
    Is a material that is broken down naturally in the environment by living organisms
  32. Volatility
    The ease that a liquid turns into a gas(it increases as boiling point decrease)
  33. Reflux
    Is the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry
  34. Esterification
    Is the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
  35. Dehydration
    In an elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make and unsaturated molecule
  36. Hydrolysis
    A reaction with water or aqueous hydroxide ions that break a chemical compound into two compounds
  37. Nucleophilic substitution
    Is a type of substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron deficient atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
  38. % yield
    (Actual amount/theoretical amount) X100
  39. Limiting reagent
    Is the substance in  chemical reaction that runs out first
  40. Atom economy
    (molecular mass of desired product/sum of molecular masses of all products) X100
  41. Fragmentation
    Is the process in mass spectrometry that causes a positive ion to split into pieces one of which is a positive fragment ion
  42. Enthalpy
    Is the heat content that is stored in a chemical reaction
  43. Exothermic
    Enthalpy of products is smaller than the enthalpy of the reaction resulting in heat loss to the surrounding
  44. Endothermic
    Enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants resulting in heat being taken in from the surroundings
  45. Activation energy
    Is the minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds
  46. Standard enthalpy change of reaction
    The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction under standard conditions in standard states
  47. Standard enthalpy change of combustion
    Enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard conditions (all reactants and products being in standard states
  48. Standard enthalpy change of formation
    Enthalpy change that takes place when ne mole of a compounds is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions
  49. Average bond enthalpy
    Average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by haemolytic fission 1 mole of a given type of bond in the molecules of a gaseous species
  50. Hess’ law
    Sates that if a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final condition are the same the total enthalpy change is e same for each route
  51. heterogeneous catalysis
    Is catalysis of a reaction in which the catalyst has a different physical state from the reactants
  52. Homogenous catalysis
    Is catalysis of a reaction in which the catalyst and reactants are in the same physical state
  53. Le Chatleier’s principle
    States that when a system in dynamic c equilibrium is subjected to change the position of the equilibrium will shift to minimise change
  54. Troposphere
    Lowest layer of the earth’s atmosphere
  55. Stratosphere
    Second layer of earth’s atmosphere containing the ozone layer
  56. Adsorption
    Process that occurs when a gas, liquid or solute is held to the surface of a solid , or more rarely a liquid
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Card Set:
organic chemistry key words
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2015-12-19 22:35:23
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organic chemistry key owrds
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