MCAT behavioral sciences 6

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  1. 2 social behaviors that allow us to interact with others
    • attraction
    • attachment
    • aggression
  2. 4 factors that affect interpersonal attraction
    • similarity
    • self disclosure
    • reciprocity
    • proximity
    • **opps attract so not always true**
  3. golden ratio
    people are attracted to individuals with certain body proportions
  4. self disclosure
    sharing ones fears, thoughts, goals w/ another being, met w/nonjudgemental expectations
  5. reciprocal liking
    they like others better when they believe the other person likes them
  6. proximity
    being physically close to someone
  7. mere exposure effect
    people prefer stimuli that they have been exposed to more frequently
  8. amygdala
    part of brain that associates stimuli w/ corresponding rewards or punishments
  9. cognitive association model
    we are more likely to respond to others aggressively when we feel certain emotions (hunger, thirst)
  10. secure attachment
    child has a consistent caregiver and is able to go out and explore knowing that they have a secure base to return to
  11. avoidant attachment
    caregiver has little or no response to a distressed child
  12. ambivalent attachment
    inconsistent response to a child's distress, whether respond appropriately or neglectfully
  13. anxious-ambivalent attachment
    child is always anxious about the reliability of the caregiver
  14. disorganized attachment
    show no clear pattern of behavior in response to the caregivers absence or presence but can show a mix of diff behaviors
  15. social support
    perception or reality that one is cared for by a social network
  16. emotional support
    listening, affirming, and empathizing w/ someone's feelings
  17. esteem support
    more affirming directly the qualities and skills of a person
  18. informational support
    provides info that will help someone
  19. network support
    gives a person a sense of belonging
  20. foraging
    seeking our and eating food
  21. intersexual selection
    selection of mate based on attraction
  22. mate bias
    how choosing member of the species are able to choose a mate
  23. phenotypic benefits
    traits the make a potential mate more attractive to the opposite sex
  24. 5 mechanisms of mate choice
    • phenotypic benefits
    • sensory bias
    • runaway selection
    • indicator traits
    • genetic compatibility
  25. 3 mating systems
    • monogamy
    • polygamy
    • promiscuity
  26. sensory bias
    development of a trait to match a pre-existing  preference that exists in a pop
  27. runaway selection
    trait has no effect on survival but becomes more and more exaggerated over time
  28. indicator traits
    a trait that signifies overall good health
  29. genetic compatibility
    mate pairs, when combined, have complex genetics
  30. altruism
    form of helping behavior in which the person's interest is to benefit someone else at some cost to themselves
  31. empathy
    ability to vicariously express the emotion of another and draws strong influence on helping others
  32. empathy-altruism hypothesis
    explanation for the relationships empathy and helping behavior one does at no matter the cost to them
  33. inclusive fitness
    measure of an organisms success in a pop
  34. social perception
    provides tools to make judgement and impressions regarding other people
  35. hawk dove game 4 alternatives
    • altruism - donor provides benefits at cost to themselves
    • cooperation - donor and recipient benefit
    • spite - donor and recipient effected negatively
    • selfishness - donor benefits recipient doesnt
  36. perceiver
    influenced by experience, motives, and emotional state
  37. target
    person about which the perception is made
  38. situation
    social context can determine what info is available to the perceiver
  39. primacy effect
    idea that first impressions are often more important than subsequent impressions
  40. recency effect
    most recent info we have about an individual that is the most important in forming our impressions
  41. reliance on central traits
    organize perceptions of others based on traits and personal characteristics of the target that are most relevant to perceiver
  42. implicit personality theory
    sets of assumptions people make about how diff types of people, their traits, and behaviors are related
  43. halo effect
    judgement about a specific aspect of an individual can be affected by ones overall impression of an individual
  44. just world hypothesis
  45. ethnocentrism
    practice of making judgements about other cultures based on values and benefits of ones culture
  46. cultural relativism
    perception of another culture as different from ones own but with recognition that the cultural values, rules, mores that fit into that culture
  47. individual discrimination
    one person discriminating against a particular person or group
  48. institutional discrimination
    refers to discrim against a particular person or group by an entire institution
  49. self serving bias
    individuals will view their own success based on internal factors while viewing failures based on external factors
  50. self enhancement
    focuses on the need to maintain self worth and can be done through internal attribution of success and external attributes of failures
  51. attribution theory
    focuses on the tendency for individuals to infer the causes of other peoples behaviors
  52. dispositional attributions
    are those that relate to the person whose behavior is considered (his or her beliefs, attitudes, personality, etc)
  53. situational attributions
    those that relate to features of the surrounding such as threat, social norms, peer pressure
  54. consistency cues
    consistent behaviors of a person over time
  55. consensus cues
    extent to which a persons behavior differ from others
  56. distinctiveness cues
    a persons behavior in diff scenarios are the same
  57. correspondent inference theory
    focus on intentions of others behaviors if those actions were expected
  58. fundamental attribution error
    general biased toward making dispositional attributions rather than situational ones, especially in - context
  59. attribution scenarios
    individuals make judgements that are complex but instead substitute for a simpler solution
  60. stereotype content model
    classifies stereotype w/respect to hypothetical in-group  using two dimensions
  61. paternalistic
    stereotypes are those in which the group is looked down upon as being inferior
  62. contemptuous
    ST in which the group is viewed with annoyance and anger
  63. self-fulfilling prophecy
    expectations of certain groups create conditions that lead to conform to those expectations
  64. stereotype threat
    concept of people being concerned or anxious about confusing a - ST about ones social group
  65. power
    ability of people to achieve their goals despite obstacles or circumstances
  66. prestige
    level of respect shown to a person by others
  67. class
    socioeconomic status
  68. macrosocialogy
    large groups and social structure
  69. microsocialogy
    focuses on small groups and the individuals
  70. social structure
    system of people w/in a society organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships
  71. functionalism
    study of the structure and function of each part of society
  72. function
    beneficial consequences of peoples actions
  73. dysfunction
    harmful consequences of peoples actions as they undermine a social system
  74. manifest function
    action is intended to help some part of the system
  75. latent function
    unintended + consequences on other part of society
  76. conflict theory
    how power differentials are created and how they contribute to the maintenance of social order
  77. symbolic interactions
    study of ways individuals interact through a shared understanding of words,customs,and other symbols
  78. social construction
    how individuals put together their social reliability
  79. government and economy
    organizations of political and capital relationships ,activities, and social structures that affect rule making, individuals in society, and rights
  80. beneficence tenet of medical ethics
    physicians responsibility to act in the patient's best interest
  81. physicians need to adhere to 4 key tenets of medical ethics
    • beneicence
    • nonmalficence
    • respect for patient autonomy
    • justice
  82. nonmalficence tenet of medical ethics
    physicians respon to avoid treatments in which harm is outweighed by the benefits
  83. respect for patient autonomy tenet of medical ethics
    phys respect patients decision about healthcare, and have the choice to not refuse life saving treatments
  84. justice tenet of medical ethics
    respon to treat all patients with similar care and distribute healthcare resources fairly
  85. material culture
    sociological exploration the meaning of objects  of a given society
  86. nonmaterial culture
    ideas that represent a group of people
  87. cultural barriers
    cultural differences impedes interactions w/ others
  88. race
    social constrict based on phenotype difference between a group of people
  89. ethnicities
    social constrict based on sorts of people by cultured factors such as language or religion
  90. symbolic ethnicities
    specific connection to one's ethnicity in which ethnic symbols and identities remain important even when ethnic identity does not play a significant role in everyday life
  91. demographic shifts
    change in the makeup of a pop over time
  92. fertility rate
    average # of children born to a woman during her lifetime in a pop
  93. migration
    contributor to pop growth
  94. immigration
    movement into a new geographical space
  95. emigration
    movement away from a geo space
  96. demographic transition
    demo shift referring to changes in birth and death rates
  97. social movements
    organized to promote or used for social change
  98. proactive
    promote social change
  99. reactive
    resist social change
  100. globalization
    process of integrating the global economy w/ free trade and the tapering of foreign markets
  101. urbanization
    dense areas of pop creating  pull for migration
  102. prevalence
    measure of the # of cases of an illness overall, new or chronic, per pop in a given amount of time
  103. morbidity
    burden or degree of illness associated w/ a given disease
  104. mortality
    refers to death caused by a given disease
  105. second sidedness
    exacerbation of health outcomes caused by social injustice
  106. medicare
    covers patients over the age of 65
  107. medicaid
    covers patient who are in significant financial need
  108. social class
    people who share a similar socioeconomic portion in society
  109. ascribed status
    identifiable characteristics such as age,gender, and skin color
  110. ascribed state
    social status assigned to a person based on sex, ethnicity, etc
  111. anomie
    lack of social norms or break down of social bonds
  112. strain theory
    how anomic conditions can lead to deviance
  113. social capital
    the investment people make in their society in return for economic or collection rewards
  114. stronger ties
    peer group and kinships that are small but powerful
  115. weak ties
    social connections that are superficial, but large in size
  116. social mobility
    economic and occupational structure that allows one to acquire an increase in employment oppurtunities
  117. intragenerational
    changes in social status that happens within a persons lifetime
  118. intergenerational
    changes are formed from parents to children
  119. meritocracy
    based on intellectual talent and achievement and is means for a person to advance up the social ladder
  120. plutocracy
    ruled by upper class
  121. social reproduction
    social inequality can be reproduced or passed on from one gen to the next
  122. relative
    one is poor in comparison to the large pop in which they live
  123. poverty line
    derived from the government calculation of the min income required for families to acquire the min necessities of life
  124. social exclusion
    powerlessness when poor individuals feel alienated from society
  125. spatial inequality
    social stratification across territories and their pop
  126. incidence
    # of new cases of an illness per pop at risk in a given amount of time
Card Set:
MCAT behavioral sciences 6
2015-12-22 18:59:24
MCAT 10-12
mcat chapter 10, 11, and 12
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